Bachman et al. (1970): study US 1966


Bachman, J.G.; Davidson, R.L.; Johnson, L.D.; Kahn, R.L.; Mednick, M.T.
Youth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
Institute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA


Public highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
Survey name
Unnamed study
Probability multistage stratified area sample
N = 1799
Non Response
2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Multiple assesment methods
Interviews, test, teacher ratings.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1  I feel like smiling
2  I generally feel in good spirits
3  I feel happy
4  I am very satisfied with life
5  I find a good deal of happiness in life
6  I feel sad

Response options:
5   almost always true
4   often true
3   sometimes true
2   seldom true
1   never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
Author's label:
Error estimates:
Repeat reliability: T1 - T3 (30 mos.): r = +.47 T1 - T2 (18 mos.): r = +.54 T2 - T3 (12 mos.): r = +.63
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 5 On range 0-10
3.77 6.90
0.61 -

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Negative affect states Scores on symptom inventories
Feeling cheerful (vs gloomy)
Intelligence Earlier intelligence
Vocabulary level Verbal ability Reading comprehension ability Verbal ability Delinquent behaviors Current deviant behavior Impulse to aggression Aggressive, angry
Misbehavior in school
Positive attitude towards school Perceived usefulness of schooling
Educational values
Negative attitude toward school Attitudes to school
Perceived usefulness of schooling
Having plans to go to college Educational aspirations
Perceived usefulness of schooling
Particular plans
Academic achievement(grades School-success Self-perceived school ability Self-perceived intelligence
Rebellious behaviors in school Misbehavior in school Somatic symptoms Current psycho-somatic complaints Status of occupatio-nal aspirations Occupational aspirations Negative affect states Feeling down (vs not)
Current mental complaints
Trust in government Attitudes to national government Internal control Inner locus of control Ambitious job attitude Occupational aspirations
Aspirations for social advancement
Current motivation to work
Need for social approval Approval seeking Need for self-utilization Self-actualization (need for) Need for self-development Self-actualization (need for) Trust in people Trusting
Trust in people
Test-anxiety Fail anxious Political knowledge Political concern Self-esteem Evaluation of self-as-a-whole Preference for "a job that pays off" Aspirations for social advancement
Current motivation to work
Knowledge about occupations Concern about social mobility
Development of attitudes to work
Preference for "a job that doesn't bug me" Aspirations for social advancement
Current motivation to work
Earlier Happiness Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago) Acceptance of social values Social values
Similarity of own values with others
Positive evaluation of family relations Earlier family of origin
Later family of origin
Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
S.E.S. Earlier socio-economic status
'Objective' socio-economic status