Sources used for data file ‘States of Nations’

a    b    c     d    e     f    g     h    i     j    k    l     m    n     o    p     q   r    s   t    u    v     w    x    y     z

Achterberg, P. & Veenhoven, R. (2009)
Modernization, cultural conflicts and the quality of life in 73 countries
Paper presented at 9th ISQOLS conference, Florence, Italy

Alkire, S. & Santos, M.A. (2010)
Acute Multidimensional Poverty: A new index for developing countries

OHPI working paper no. 38, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, Oxford, UK

Amare, A.T., Amini, A., Assadi, R. & Shrime, M. (2015)
Global, regional and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and health life-expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries 1990-2013: Quantifying the epidemiological transition
The Lancet, published online August 272015

Allik, J. et. al. (2010)
How people see others is different from how people see themselves: a replicable pattern across cultures
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99: 870-882

Anckar, C., Eriksson, M. & Leskinen, J. (2002)
Measuring ethnic, linguistic and religious fragmentation in the world
ABo Akademi University, Finland, Dpt. of Political Sciences, Occasional papers series nr. 18/2002

Arise (1996)
The value of pleasure and the question of guilt
Data tabulations international survey by  Harris Research Center, Richmond Surrey UK JN66029

Aselina, A. (2003)
Journal of economic growth, vol. 8, 155-194

AzmatG., Guell, M. & Manning, A. (2004)
Gender gaps in unemployment rates in OECD countries
Center of Economic Performance, London School of Economics, UK

Biswas-Diener, R., Linley, P.A., Dovey, H., Maltby, J., Hurling, R. Wilkinson, J. and Lyubchik, N. (2015)
Pleasure: an initial exploration
Journal of happiness Studies, 2015, 16: 313-332

Brady, D. Beckfeld, J. & Stephens, J. (2004)
Comparative Welfare States (dataset)

Blanchflower, D.G. & Oswald, A.J. (1999)
Well-being, insecurity and the decline of American Jobsatisfaction
Paper under review

Bornschier, V. & Heintx, P. (eds)
Compendium of data for world-system analysis
Universitat Zurich, Soziologisch Institut, Switserland, 1979

CAF Charities Aid Foundation
The World Giving Index 2010

CIA Factbook

Currie, C.; Barnekow Rasmussen, V.; Morgan, A.; Rasch, J.; Roberts, C.; Samdal, O.; Settertobulte, W.; Smith, R. (2004)
Young People’s Health in Context, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study: International Report from the 2001/2002 Survey.
Health Policy for Children and Adolescents No.4, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark

Cojucaru, A. (2014)
Prospects of upward mobility and preferences for redistribution: Evidence from the Life in Transition Survey
European Journal of Political Economy 34, 300-314

Currie, C.; Barnekow Rasmussen, V.; Currie, D.; Gabhainn, S.N.; Godeau, E.; Morgan, A.; Pickett, W; Richter, ; Roberts, C.(2008)
Inequalities in Young People’s Health: International Report from the HBSC 2005/2006 Survey.
Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No.5, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark

Deiniger, K.W. & Squire, L. (1996) Measuring Income Inequality Database. The World Bank Economic Review, 10(3): 565-91

Diener, E., Diener, M. & Diener, C.
Factors predicting the subjective well-being of nations
Journal of Personality and Social psychology, vol 69 1995, pp 851-864

Diener, E. & Tay, L. (2015)
Subjective well-being and human welfare around the world as reflected in the Gallup World Poll
International Journal of Psychology, 50/2, 135-149, DOI: 10.1002/ijop.12136

Dijkstra, G. (2000)
A larger pie through a fair share? Gender equality and economic performance
Institute of Social Studies, Working Paper no. 315, The Hague, The Netherlands

Dreher, A. (2006)
Does globalization affect growth? Evidence from a new index of glabalization
Applied Economics, 38: 1091-1110

Dreher, A. (2010)
KOF index of globalization

Durex (2000)
Global survey into sexual attitudes and behavior

Environmental Performance Index (EPI)

Engineer, M.H., Roy, N. & Fink, S. (2010)
‘ Healthy’ Human Development indexes
Social Indicators Research, 99, 61-80, Table 1

Esping-Andersen, G.
Three Worlds of Welfare-capitalism
Polity Press, 1990, London

Estes, R. (1984)
The social progress of nations
Preager, New York, USA

Estes, R. (1988)
Trends in world social development. The social progress of nations 1970-1987
Preager, 1988, New York, USA

Estes, R. (2011)
Scores on the Weighted Index of Social Progress Arranged Alphabetically, 1990-09

Feld, L.P. & Voigt, S. (2003)
Economic growth and juridical independence: cross country evidence using a new set of indicators
European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 19, 497-527

Fischer, R. & Boer, D. (2011)
What is more important for national wellbeing: money or autonomy? A meta-analysis of wellbeing, burnout and anxiety across 63 nations
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101: 164-184. DOI: 10.1037/a0023663

Fischer, R. & Chalmers, A. (2008)
Is optimism universal? A meta-analytic investigation of optimism levels across 22 nations
Personality and Individual Differences 45: 378-382 DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.008

Fraser Institute
See Gwartney

Foreign Policy
Failed States Index 2007

Fund for Pease (2006)
Failed States Index, 2006 annual report

Freedom House (2005)
Freedom in the world 2005
see also Karantnycky (1995 ), Messick (1996)

The State of Global Well-Being
Gallup Press, 2007, New York USA

Gastril, R.D. (1987)
Freedom in the world. Political rights and civil liberties 1986-1987
Greenwood Press, New York, USA

Gelfrand, M.J. et al (2011)
Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33 nation study
Science, 332: 110-1104. DOI: 10.1126/science.1197754

Global Competitiness Report (GCR) (2005)
Global Competitiveness Programme

Global Age Watch

Global Footprint Network

Global Peace Index

GLOBE study: See House at al. 2004

Gordon, M.S. (1988)
Social security policies in industrial countries
Cambridge University Press, New York

Gwartney, J.D. (1996)
Economic Freedom in the World 1975-1995
Fraser Institute, Vancouver BC, Canada

Gwartney, J.D. & Lawson, R (2006)
Economic freedom in the world: 2006 annual report
Fraser Institute, Vancouver BC, Canada,

Harris, M. (1997)
Monotoring optimism in South-Africa
Social Indicator Research vol 41, 279-304

Heritage Foundation
Index of Economic Freedom 2010

Hofstede, G. (1980)
Cultures consequences. International differences in work related values
Sage, London, UK

Hofstede, G. (1991)
Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind
McGraw-Hill, London, UK

House, R.J., Hanges, P.J. Javadin, M., Dorfman, P.W. & Gupta,V. (2004)
Culture, Leadership and Organizations. The GLOBE study of 62 societies
Sage, London, UK

Humana, C. (1992)
World Human Rights Guide
Oxford University Press, New York

IDB International Data Base (2005)
US Census Bureau

IDMC (2006)
Internal Didsplacement Monitoring Centre, Global Statistics

The costs of social security
1985: 11th international inquiry 19??-19??
1988: 12th international inquiry 1981-1983
1992: 13th international inquiry 19??-19??
1996: 14th international inquiry 1987-1989
1997: 15th international inquiry 1990-1993
2010: World Social Security Report
International Labor Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Yearbook of Labor Statistics
1990: 49th issue
1995: 54th issue
International Labor Organization, Geneva

Social Security Expenditure database: Public Social Protection

Government Statistics Yearbook
International Monetary Fund, Washington, USA

IMF-B (1986)
Manual on government finance statistics
International Monetary Fund, Washington, USA

Inglehart, R.F. (2010)
Faith and freedom: Traditional and modern ways to happiness
Chapter 12 in: Diener, E., Helliwell, J.F. & Kahneman, D. (Eds.) International Differences in Well-being, Oxford University Press, 2010, New York, USA

ISD database
Indices of Social Development
Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam

International Disaster Database
Center for Research in the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED)
University of Louvain, Belgium

IPPF (1990, 1997 2000)
Reproductive rights
International Planned Parenthood Federation,  London
Wallchart produced in colloboration with IWRAW

International Union of Psychological Science

Annual report on International Religious Freedom
US Department of State

Jutting, J.P., Morrisson, C. Dayton-Johnson, J. & Drechsler, D. (2006)
Measuring gender (in)equality: Introducing the Gender, Institutions and Development database (GID)
OECD Development Centre, Working Paper 247

Kageyama (2009)
Why do women on former communist countries look unhappy?
MPIDR working paper WP 2009-032, Rostock, Germany

Karantnycky, A., Cavanaugh, C. & Finn, J. (eds) (1995)
Freedom in the world 1994-1995. The annual survey of political rights and civil liberties
Freedom House, New York, USA

Karantnycky, A., et. al. (eds) (2000)
Freedom in the world 1994-2000. The annual survey of political rights and civil liberties
Freedom House, New York, USA
see also Freedom House

Kaufman, D., Kraay, A. & Mastruzzi, M. (2008)
Governance matters VII: Governance indicators for 1996-2007
World Bank Policy Research Working paper 4654

Kearney, A.T. (2003)
Foreign Policy Globalization Index
Foreign Policy, vol. 134, pp.60-73

Kidron, M. & Segal, R. (1981
De toestand in de wereld. Een politieke atlas
Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Kirkcaldy, B., Furnham, A & Siefen, G. (2004)
The relationship between health efficacy, educational attainment and well-being among 30 nations
European Psycholpogist, 9 107-119

Klomp, J. & DeHaan, J. (2010)
Measuring health: A multivariate approach
Social Indicators Research 96: 433-457 DOI 10.1007s11205-009-9486-x

Krause, P. (1994)
DIW Mitteilungen 22-12-1994, p 868
Deutsches Institut fur Wirtschaftforschung, Berlin, Germany

Kurian, G.T. (1979)
The book of world rankings
McMillan Reference Books, London, UK

Kurian, G.T. (1984)
The book of world rankings
2nd edition

Kurian, G.T. (1992)
The new book of world rankings
3rd edition, updated by J. Marti
Facts On File, New York, USA

Kurtzman, J. & Yago, G. (2009)
Opacity Index 2009: Measuring Global Risks
Milken Institute, California USA,

LeGrand, J. (1987)
Inequalities in health, some international comparisons
European economic review, vol 31, pp 182-191

Levine, R.V., Norenzayan, A. & Philbrick, K (2001)
Cross-cultural differences in helping strangers
Journal of Cross-cultural psychology, vol, 32, 543-560

Living planet report (2000)
World Wild Fund, Gland, Switserland

Lynn, R (1982)
National differences in anxiety and extraversion
Progress in Experimental Personality research, vol 11, pp 213-258

Lynn, R. (1991)
The secret of the miracle economy. Different national attitudes to competitiveness and money
Social Affair Unit, London, UK

Lynn, R. & Martin, R. (1995)
National differences for 37 nations in extraversion, neurotisicm, psychotisicm and economic, demographic and other correlates.
Personality and individual differences, vol19, pp 403-406

Lynn, R. & Vanhanen, T. (2002)
IQ and the wealth of nations
Preager, London, UK

Lynn, R.J. & VanHanen (2006)
IQ and Global Inequality
Washington Summit Publishers

Mazumdar, K. (1999)
Measuring wellbeing of the developing countries: achievement and improvement indexes
Social Indictors research, vol 47, pp. 1-6

McCrae, R.R. & Allik, J (2002)
The Five Factor Model of personality accross cultures
Kluwer Academic/Plemun Publishers, New Yoyk, ISBN 0-306-47355-0

McCrea, R.R. & Terracciano, A. (2005)
Personality Profiles of Cultures: Aggregate Personality Traits
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89: 407-425

Messick, R.E. (1996)
World survey of economic freedom 1995-96
Freedom House/ Transaction Publishers, London UK
see also: Freedom House

Michalos, A.C. & Hatch, P.M. (2018)
Good societies financial inequality and secrecy and the good life: From Aristotle to Piketty
Working paper

Minkov, M. (2009)
Nations with more dialectic selves exhibit lower polarization in life quality judgments and social opinions
Cross-Cultural Research, online since May 19 2009, DOI: 10.1177/1069397109334956

Montalco, J.G. & Reynal-Querol, M. (2005)
Ethnic diversity and economic development
J of development Economics 76: 293-323

Nemeth, R.J. & Smith, D.A. (1985)
International trade and world-system structure: a multiple network analysis
Review, vol 8, pp 517-560

Nielsen (2008)
Consumer confidence, concerns and spending intentions: a global Nielsen consumer report

OECD (1984)
National Account Statistics 1960-83
Organazation for Economic Development, Paris, France

OECD (1986)
Historical statistics 1960-1984
Organization for Economic Development, Paris, France

OECD (19??)
Social expenditure 1960-1990
Organization for economic development, Paris, France

OECD (2007)
Social expenditure 1980-2003: Interpretative guide of SOCX

OECD (2009)
Social expenditure: Aggregated data (dataset)

PAI (1995)
Reproductive Risk: A world wide assessment of women’s sexual and maternal health.
1995 report on progress towards world population stabilization
Population Action International, Washington, USA.

PAI (1997)
Contraceptive choice, world wide access to fertility regulation
Population Action International, Washington USA

Ray, A.K. (2008)
Measurement of social development: an international comparison
Social Indicators Research, 86: 1-46 DOI 10.1007/s11205-007-9097-3

Reporters without Borders
Annual Worldwide Press freedom Index

Rojas, M.
The Measurement of Quality of Life: Conceptualization Comes First. A Four-Qualities-of-Life Conceptual Framework and an Illustration to Latin America. Paper Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Sede México & Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Mexico, Preliminary version, March 2008

Ruggeri, K. Garcia-Garzon, E. Maguire, A. & Huppert, F.A. (2016)
Comprehensive psychological wellbeing
Chapter 1 in: Quick, A. & Abdallah, S. Looking through the wellbeing kaleidiscope,New Economic Foundation ISBN 978-1-908506-97-9

Schmitt, D.P. et. al. (2007)
The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description in 56 nations
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38: 173. DOI: 10.1177/0022022106297299

Schmidt, D.P. & Alik, J (2005)
Simultaneous administration of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 53 nations: Exploring the universal and culture specific features of gliobal self esteem
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89: 623-642 DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.89.4.623

Scuggs, L. (2004)
Comparative Welfare Entitlements Dataset

Siaroff, A. (1999)
Corporatism in 24 industrial democracies. Meaning and measurement
European Journal of Political Research, vol 36, 175-205

Schwartz, S.H. (1994)
Beyond Individualism-Collectivism: New Cultural Dimensions of Values
In: Kim, U., Triandis, H.C. & Yoon, G. (eds), ‘Individualism and Collectivism. Theory, method and application’, Sage, New York, USA

Smith, P.B., Dugan, S. & Trompenaars, F. (1996)
National culture and the values of organizational employees. A dimensional analysis across 43 nations.
Journal of Cross-cultural psychology vol 27, pp 231-264 (Nation scores were not mentioned in this article, but were provided by the first author on request)

Smith, T.W. & Kim, S. (2006)
National pride in comparative perspective: 1995/96 and 2003/04
International Journal of Public Opion Research 18: 130-136

Smits, J., Ultee, W. & Lammers, J.
De verklaring van verschillen in opleidings-homogamie tussen 65 landen
Mens en maatschappij, vol 71, 1996, p 41-57

Smits, J., Ultee, W. & Lammers, J.
More or less educational homogamy? A test of different versions of modernization theory using cross-temporal evidence for 60 countries.
American Sociological Review, 65, 781-788

Smits, J. & Monder, C. (2009)
Length of life inequality around the globe
Social Science and Medicine, 68: 1114-1123
Data available at

Sousa-Poza, A, & Sousa-Poza, A.A (2000)
Well-being at work: A cross-national analysis of levels and determonants of job satisfaction
Journal of Socio-Economics 29, 517-538

Summers, R. & Heston, A. (1985)
A new set of international comparisons of real product and price  estimates for 130 countries 1950-1985
National Income and Wealth, vol 34, pp 1-25

Taylor, C.L. & Jodice, D.A. (1983)
World handbook of political and social indicators
3rd edition
Yale University Press, New York, USA.

TI (1995)
1995 TI Corruption Index
Press release, 15 june 1995, Transparency International, Berlin

TI (1997)
TI-Corruption Perception Index 1997
TI Newsletter, September 1997, p 3
Transparency International, Berlin, Germany

Ultee, W.C., DeGraaf, N.D. & VanPuijenbroek, ?? (1988)
Gezonde en ongezonde vraagstellingen (Healthy and unhealthy questions)
Tijdschrift voor Sociale Gezondheidszorg, vol 66, pp 333-339

UN-DY (1995)
Demographic Yearbook
1965: Yearbook 1965
1968: Yearbook 1969
1983: Yearbook 1981
1984: Yearbook 1983
1995: Yearbook 1993
1996: Yearbook 1994
1997: Yearbook 1995
1998: Yearbook 1996
United Nations, New York, USA

UN-HCR (2006)
The state of world’s refugees
Oxford University Press, New York

Human Development Reports
United Nations Development Program, Oxford University Press, New York USA
1990  Concept and measurement of human development
1991  Financing human development
1992  Global dimensions of human development
1993  Peoples participation
1994  New dimensions of human development
1995  Gender and human development
1996  Economic growth and human development
1997  Human development to eradicate poverty
1998  Consumption for human development
1999  Globalization with a human face
2000  Human rights and human development
2001  Making new technologies work for human development
2002  Deepening democracy in a fragmented world
2003  Millennium development goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty
2004  Cultural liberty in today’s diverse world
2005  International cooperation at a crossroads: aid, trade and security in an unequal world

2007 Trend file 1971-2005. Data file provided on request by Received 31-3-2008

United Nations Statistical Yearbook
19?? nr 44

UN (1985, 1990)
National account statistics. Compendium of income distribution statistics
United Nations, New York, USA

UN-WPP (2009)
World Population Prospects: The 2008 revision
United Nations, Geneva 2009

VanDerLijn, N. (1995)
Measuring well-being with social indicators, HDIs, PQLI, and BWI for 133 countries for1975, 1980, 1985, 1988 and 1992

Vanhanen, T. (1990)
The process of democratization. A comparative study of 147 states 1980-88
Crane Russak, New York, ISBN 08448 1640X

Van Hemert, D.A. (2002)
The Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Sublective Well-being
Tilburg University, the Netherlands

Veenhoven: see World Database of Happiness (WDH)

Veenhoven, R. (1990)
Inequality in happiness: inequality in countries compared between countries
Paper presented at 12th World Congress of Sociology, Madrid, July 1990

Veenhoven, R. & Kalmijn, W.M. (2005)
Inequality-adjusted happiness
Journal of Happiness Studies 6, 421-455 

World health statistics annual
1987 Annual
1988 Annual
World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Global Health Atlas
2004 Annual
Word Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland,

Mental Health Atlas 2014

World Development Report
1990 issue:
1995 issue: Workers in an integrated world.
World Bank, Oxford University Press, New York, USA

World Bank (2007)
World Development Indicators 2007
The World bank, Washington D.C., USA

World Bank
Government matters (2009)

World Bank (2012)
Working for a world free of poverty

WIID2:World Income Inequality Database 2 (2008)
World Income Inequality Database Version 2.

World Justice Project

World Database of Happiness
Erasmus University of Rotterdam, 1995, Rotterdam
Internet site:

– homocide:

WJC (1998)
World Jewish Congress

WODC (1996)
Research and documentation center, Department of Justice, The Netherlands
cited in NRC Handelsblad November 11th p 33

World Abortion Policies (1999)
Wall chart, UN Population Division, Dpt of economic and Social affairs
UN New York

World Culture Report 1998
UNESCO, Paris, France

World Drink Trends 1998
Productschap voor gedestilleerde dranken
NCT Publications, Henley-on-Thames, UK

World Prison Brief:

World Resource Institute
Internet site:

World Value Surveys

Zimbarbo, P. et al. (1995)
Psychology, a European text
Harper Collins Publishers, London

Zwartbol, A. (2012)
Verschil mag er zijn. Veranderingseffecten van inkomensspreiding in landen op het gemiddeld geluk in landen.
(Difference no problem: Change in income inequality and change in average happiness in 63 nations, 1970-2009
Masterthesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Departement of Sociology.

Zweig, S. (2015)
Are women happier than men? Evidence from the Gallup World Poll
Journal of Happiness Studies, 2015, 16 515-541

Other global statistics

The dataset States of Nations is about characteristics of countries in periods (macro variables). It is part of the World Database of Happiness