Gender equality in nations

Women’s marriage rightsA: Women’s consent required for marriage.
B: Equal rights with respect to a) inheritance, b) property, c) divorce.
A+B sumscore using the following weights: yes +1, no equal rights -1, no consent for marriage -2, missing 0
1990-2000GenderEqualMarriage_1990s97IPPF 2000
Women’s share in income% Earned by women.
Concerns money-incomes earned on market only, not incomes from self raised food. As such, comparison between 1st and 3rd world nations is dubious. Further, high shares in earnings can imply exploitation (lazy husbands) rather than equality.
198?-94GenderEqualIncome1_199065UN HDR 1995 table 3.5
Ratio male/female earned income 2000GenderEqualIncome2_200066UN-HDR 2002 table 23
2005GenderEqualIncome2_2005163UN-HDR 2007 table 29
Education equalitySex-ratio in tertiary school1990GenderEqualSchooling1_199067UN-HDR 1995 table A21.1
% women in university1984GenderEqualSchooling2_198474Kurian 1992 t 204
Professional participation of women% women in technical/professional jobs1992GenderEqualWork1_199264UN-HDR 1995 table 3.5
1997GenderEqualWork1_1997103UN-HDR 1999 table 3
2000GenderEqualWork1_200071UN-HDR 2002 table 23
2005GenderEqualWork1_200598UN-HDR 2007 table 29
% female administrators and managers1992GenderEqualWork2_199265UN-HDR 1995 table 3.5
1997GenderEqualWork2_1997102UN-HDR 1999 table 3
2000GenderEqualWork2_200069UN-HDR 2002 table 23
2005GenderEqualWork2_200594UN-HDR 2007 table 29
Female economic activity as % of male rate1998GenderEqualWork3_1998163UN-HDR 1999 table 3
2000GenderEqualWork3_2000162UN-HDR 2002 table 23
2005GenderEqualWork3_2005167UN-HDR 2007 table 29
Employment equalityDifference in male-female unemployment rate1990sGenderEqualEmployment_1990s26Azmat 2004 p 29
Political participation of women% women on parliamentary seats1994GenderEqualPolitic1_199462UN-HDR 1995 table 3.5
1995-97GenderEqualPolitic1_199669UN-HDR 1998 table 3
1997GenderEqualPolitic1_1997147UN-HDR 1999 table 3
2000GenderEqualPolitics1_2000149UN-HDR 2002 table 23
2005GenderEqualPolitics_2005159UN-HDR 2007 table 29
Year women received right to vote1900sGenderEqualPolitict288UN-HDR 2001 table 25
Year women received right to stand for election1900sGenderEqualPolitic388UN-HDR 2001 table 25
Life-expectancyRelative to men (males = 100)1970GenderEqualLongevity_197086UN-HDR 1995 table A2-6
1992GenderEqualLongevity_199086UN-HDR 1995 table A2-6
Women’s happinessRelative to men (males = 100)1990sGenderEqualHappiness1_90s84ratio ls10f_90s to ls10m_90s
Absolute difference in average happiness with men (question type O-LS) 1990sGenderEqualHappiness2_90s84ls10f_90s minus ls10m_90s
Absolute difference in average happiness with men (question type O-HL) 1990-2004GenderEqualhappiness3_1990-200468Kageyama 2009
Absolute difference in average happiness with men (question type C-BW)2005-2008GenderEqualHappiness4_2005-200873Zweig 2015
Violation of women’s physical integrity Index of 1) existence of legislation punishing acts of violence against women (3 components) 2) estimated prevalence of female genital mutilation (in %) 1990sGenderPhysicalIntegrity_1990s122Jutting et. al. 2006, Annex
Discrimination of women
in family code
Index of 1) average age of marriage, 2) % women married before age 20, 3) unilateral termination of marriage by a husband’s repudiation of his wife, 4) inheritance practices in favour of male heirs, 5) prevalence of polygamy, 6) greater male parental authority over children 1990sGenderFamilyCode_ 1990s 117Jutting et. al. 2006, Annex
Discrimination of women
in public space
Index of 1) requirement that women wear a veil in public 2) limitations to women’s freedom to move in public
0 = no restriction, 1 = discrimination
1990sGenderPublic_1990s122Jutting et. al. 2006, Annex
Discrimination of women
in ownership rights
Index of 1) women’s right to own land, 2) women’s access to bank loans, 3) women’s right to own property other than land
0 = no discrimination, 1 = discrimination
1990sGenderOwnershipRights_1990s117Jutting et. al. 2006, Annex
Estes’ Women status indexPart of Index of Social Progress: 1) % age eligible girls attending first level schools (+), 2) % children in primary schools: girls (+), 3) % adult female illiteracy (-), 4) Years since women suffrage (+), 5) Years since women suffrage equal to men (+)1980GenderEqualIndex1_198047Estes 1984: table 5-1
Gender Empowerment Measure
Index of 1) % women in parliament, 2) women’s professional participation 3) women’s share of income

1990-94GenderEqualIndex2_1990.0465UN-HDR 1995 table 3.5
1997GenderEqualIndex2_1997103UN-HDR 1999 table 3
2005GenderEqualIndex2_200592UN-HDR 2007 table 26
SIGE indexBased on 1) relative female/male access to education, 2) relative female/male longevity, 3) relative female/male labour market participation, 4) female share in administrative and management positions, 5) female share in parliament1995GenderEqualindex3_199570Dijkstra 2000, Appendix table
Gender-related Development Index
male/female ratio of 1)life expectancy, 2) education, 3) income2000GenderEqualIndex4_200086UN-HDR 2002 table 22
2004GenderEqualIndex4_2004100UN-HDR 2006 table 24
2007GenderEqualIndex4_2007102UN-HDR 2009 table J
OECD index of women’s discrimination
in social institutions
Index of women’s discrimination in 1) family, 2) public places, 3) ownership rights, 4) physical integrity
Arithmetic mean of variables Gender…Family Code, Public, Ownnership Rights and Physical integrity
1990sGenderInstitutionsIndex_1990s117Jutting et. al. 2006, Annex
ISD index of gender equality Index of 1) attitudes to gender equality, 2) perceived equality, 3) actual m/f ratio’s 1988-1992GenderEqualIndex5_1990157ISD database

Related topics: Equality under the law, Human rights,
Related themes: Inequality, Modernity, Politics

The dataset States of Nations is about characteristics of countries in periods (macro variables). It is part of the World Database of Happiness. Though developed for the identification of societal conditions for happiness, this source can also be used for other purposes.