print

Happiness Measures

Characteristics

Code:
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa
Focus:
Overall: Satisfaction w Life as a Whole (O-SLW)
Time frame:
currently (today, these days, presently) (c)
Mode:
1 question (sq)
Scale Type:
numeric scale (n)
Scale Range:
10

Description

Selfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1   dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  satisfied

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Statistics Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981 N = 12464
Mean
= 7.100
SD
= 2.120
Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /1 18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981 N = 12464
Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /2 18+ aged, general public, EU 10, 1981 N = 12464
Fogarty (1985): study GB 1981 Adults, general public, Britain, 1981 N = 1231
Mean
= 7.700
Harding (1985): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1983 N = 1231
Mean
= 7.700
Headey & Krause (1988): study XZ Germany West 1984 16+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-1985 N = 2718
Timmermans (1997): study NL 1990 18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1990 N = 1017
Mean
= 7.840
Timmermans (1997): study DK 1990 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990 N = 1030
Mean
= 8.155
SD
= 1.903
Timmermans (1997): study GB 1990 18+ aged, general public, Britain, 1990 N = 1484
Mean
= 7.470
Timmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990 N = 2201
Mean
= 7.220
Timmermans (1997): study IT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990 N = 2010
Mean
= 7.260
Timmermans (1997): study ZA 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990 N = 2736
Mean
= 6.210
Timmermans (1997): study HU 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990 N = 999
Mean
= 6.030
Timmermans (1997): study GB Northern Ireland 1990 18+ aged, general public, North Ireland, 1990 N = 304
Mean
= 7.880
Timmermans (1997): study US 1990 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1990 N = 1839
Mean
= 7.710
Timmermans (1997): study BE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990 N = 2792
Mean
= 7.600
Timmermans (1997): study ES 1990 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990 N = 4147
Mean
= 7.140
Timmermans (1997): study IE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.880
Timmermans (1997): study CA 1990 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990 N = 1730
Mean
= 7.890
Timmermans (1997): study JP 1990 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990 N = 1011
Mean
= 6.520
Timmermans (1997): study MX 1990 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990 N = 1531
Mean
= 7.410
Timmermans (1997): study SE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1990 N = 1047
Mean
= 7.970
Timmermans (1997): study NO 1990 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1990 N = 1239
Mean
= 7.680
Timmermans (1997): study FI 1990 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990 N = 588
Mean
= 7.680
Timmermans (1997): study IS 1990 18+ aged, general public, Iceland 1990 N = 702
Mean
= 8.030
Timmermans (1997): study AR 1991 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990 N = 1002
Mean
= 7.250
Timmermans (1997): study KR 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 1990 N = 1251
Mean
= 6.690
Timmermans (1997): study BR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990 N = 1782
Mean
= 7.330
Timmermans (1997): study IN 1990 18+ aged, general public, India, 1990 N = 2500
Mean
= 6.220
Timmermans (1997): study CH 1989 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1999 N = 1400
Mean
= 8.380
Timmermans (1997): study PL 1989 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1990 N = 938
Mean
= 6.640
Timmermans (1997): study CL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.550
Timmermans (1997): study BY 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990 N = 1015
Mean
= 5.530
Timmermans (1997): study DE East Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990 N = 1336
Mean
= 6.720
Timmermans (1997): study SI 1992 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1990 N = 1035
Mean
= 5.030
Timmermans (1997): study NG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990 N = 1001
Mean
= 6.390
Timmermans (1997): study CZ 1990 18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990 N = 1396
Mean
= 6.300
Timmermans (1997): study BG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 1034
Mean
= 5.030
Timmermans (1997): study RO 1993 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1990 N = 1103
Mean
= 5.880
Timmermans (1997): study PT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990 N = 1185
Mean
= 7.080
Timmermans (1997): study AT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990 N = 1460
Mean
= 6.510
Timmermans (1997): study TR 1991 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990 N = 1030
Mean
= 6.400
Timmermans (1997): study LT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.010
Timmermans (1997): study LV 1990 18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990 N = 903
Mean
= 5.700
Timmermans (1997): study EE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990 N = 1008
Mean
= 6.000
Timmermans (1997): study RU 1991 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1990 N = 1961
Mean
= 5.350
Timmermans (1997): study FR 1990 18+ aged, general public, France, 1990 N = 1002
Mean
= 6.780
Noelle-Neumann (1988): study ZZ Developed nations 1981 18+ aged, general public, 15 developed nations, 1981-82 N = 12000
Diener et al. (2000a): study ZZ World samples 1990 18+ aged, general public, 43 nations 1990-1992 N = 59169
Mean
= 7.050
SD
= 2.080
VanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004 University students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004 N = 361
Mean
= 7.894
SD
= 1.261
Bjornskov et al. (2008a): study ZZ 1997 18+ aged, general public, 66 nations, 1997-2001 N = 62295
Mean
= 6.600
SD
= 2.520
Bjornskov (2006): study ZZ 1990 18+ aged, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2001 N = 800000
Bjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1 18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000 N = 87748
Mean
= 6.477
SD
= 2.602
Pacek & Radcliff (2008): study ZZ Developed nations 1981 General public, 18 developed nations, 1981-2000 N = 20000
Peiro (2006): study ZZ 1995 16+ aged, general public, 16 nations, 1995 N = 16000
Mean
= 7.210
Oishi et al. (1999): study ZZ 1999 18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1991 N = 54446
Mean
= 7.020
SD
= 2.090
World Values Survey (2000): study NG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.635
SD
= 2.729
World Values Survey (2000): study ZA 1981 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1981 N = 1529
Mean
= 6.301
SD
= 2.411
World Values Survey (2000): study CA 1982 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1982 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.852
SD
= 1.734
World Values Survey (2000): study CA 1990 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990 N = 1501
Mean
= 7.885
SD
= 1.738
World Values Survey (2000): study US 1981 /1 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1981 N = 1481
Mean
= 7.725
SD
= 1.897
World Values Survey (2000): study US 1990 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 7.708
SD
= 1.837
World Values Survey (2000): study CN 1990 18+ aged, general public, China, 1990 N = 1504
Mean
= 7.134
SD
= 2.170
World Values Survey (2000): study IN 1990 18+ aged, general public, India, 1990 N = 1509
Mean
= 6.258
SD
= 2.421
World Values Survey (2000): study JP 1981 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.594
SD
= 1.878
World Values Survey (2000): study JP 1990 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 6.526
SD
= 1.748
World Values Survey (2000): study TR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990 N = 1030
Mean
= 6.402
SD
= 2.452
World Values Survey (2000): study AU 1981 18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1981 N = 1226
Mean
= 7.882
SD
= 1.746
Abrams (1985): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 1231
Mean
= 7.120
Abrams (1985): study ZZ Northern Europe 1981 18+ aged, general public, Northern Europe, 1981 N = 6431
Mean
= 7.480
Abrams (1985): study ZZ Latin Europe 1981 18+ aged, general public, Latin Europe, 1981 N = 4850
Mean
= 6.630
Abrams (1985): study ZZ Scandinavia 1981 18+ aged, general public, Scandinavian nations, 1981 N = 4308
Mean
= 8.010
World Values Survey (2000): study AT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990 N = 1504
Mean
= 6.510
SD
= 3.372
World Values Survey (2000): study BY 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990 N = 1506
Mean
= 5.520
SD
= 2.239
World Values Survey (2000): study BE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.394
SD
= 1.777
World Values Survey (2000): study BE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990 N = 1502
Mean
= 7.654
SD
= 1.886
World Values Survey (2000): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 1499
Mean
= 7.655
SD
= 1.895
World Values Survey (2000): study GB 1990 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1990 N = 1484
Mean
= 7.475
SD
= 1.922
World Values Survey (2000): study BG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 5.035
SD
= 2.293
World Values Survey (2000): study XZ Czechoslovakia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia (former), 1990 N = 1497
Mean
= 6.372
SD
= 2.132
World Values Survey (2000): study DK 1981 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981 N = 1499
Mean
= 8.195
SD
= 1.742
World Values Survey (2000): study DK 1990 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990 N = 1496
Mean
= 8.162
SD
= 1.893
World Values Survey (2000): study EE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990 N = 1008
Mean
= 6.000
SD
= 2.132
World Values Survey (2000): study FI 1981 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1981 N = 1505
Mean
= 7.906
SD
= 1.407
World Values Survey (2000): study FI 1990 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990 N = 1505
Mean
= 7.680
SD
= 1.881
World Values Survey (2000): study FR 1981 18+ aged, general public, France, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.701
SD
= 2.100
World Values Survey (2000): study FR 1990 18+ aged, general public, France, 1990 N = 1501
Mean
= 6.783
SD
= 1.975
World Values Survey (2004): study XZ Germany West 1981 18+ aged, general public, Germany-West (former), 1981 N = 1305
Mean
= 7.175
SD
= 1.919
World Values Survey (2000): study DE West Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, West-Germany region, Germany, 1990 N = 1501
Mean
= 7.220
SD
= 1.921
World Values Survey (2000): study DE East Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, East-Germany, Germany, 1990 N = 1336
Mean
= 6.723
SD
= 1.962
World Values Survey (2000): study HU 1981 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.927
SD
= 2.425
World Values Survey (2000): study HU 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 6.027
SD
= 2.451
World Values Survey (2000): study IS 1981 18+ aged, general public, Iceland, 1981 N = 1501
Mean
= 8.092
SD
= 1.618
World Values Survey (2000): study IS 1990 18+ aged, general public, Iceland, 1990 N = 1502
Mean
= 8.022
SD
= 1.596
World Values Survey (2000): study IE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981 N = 1207
Mean
= 7.706
SD
= 1.894
World Values Survey (2000): study IE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990 N = 1481
Mean
= 7.875
SD
= 1.924
World Values Survey (2000): study IT 1981 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.687
SD
= 2.446
World Values Survey (2000): study IT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 7.300
SD
= 2.064
World Values Survey (2000): study LV 1990 18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 5.703
SD
= 2.437
World Values Survey (2000): study LT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.013
SD
= 2.346
World Values Survey (2000): study NL 1981 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1981 N = 1221
Mean
= 7.689
SD
= 1.610
World Values Survey (2000): study NL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1990 N = 1017
Mean
= 7.834
SD
= 1.553
World Values Survey (2000): study GB Northern Ireland 1981 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland region, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 500
Mean
= 7.650
SD
= 1.909
World Values Survey (2000): study GB Northern Ireland 1990 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland region, United Kingdom, 1990 N = 500
Mean
= 7.884
SD
= 1.800
World Values Survey (2000): study NO 1981 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1981 N = 1498
Mean
= 7.899
SD
= 1.839
World Values Survey (2000): study NO 1990 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 7.685
SD
= 1.766
World Values Survey (2000): study PL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.641
SD
= 2.347
World Values Survey (2000): study PT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.077
SD
= 2.127
World Values Survey (2000): study RU 1990 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1990 N = 1508
Mean
= 5.353
SD
= 2.391
Saris et al. (1996): study RU 1993 Adults, age range not reported, general public, Russia, 1993 N = 3271
Mean
= 5.060
SD
= 2.500
World Values Survey (2000): study SI 1990 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.294
SD
= 2.209
World Values Survey (2000): study ES 1981 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1981 N = 1501
Mean
= 6.599
SD
= 2.007
World Values Survey (2000): study ES 1990 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 7.137
SD
= 1.928
World Values Survey (2000): study SE 1982 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1982 N = 954
Mean
= 8.010
SD
= 1.719
World Values Survey (2000): study SE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1990 N = 1497
Mean
= 7.970
SD
= 1.739
World Values Survey (2000): study CH 1990 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1990 N = 1494
Mean
= 8.388
SD
= 1.735
World Values Survey (2000): study AR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990 N = 1503
Mean
= 7.253
SD
= 2.029
World Values Survey (2000): study BR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 1990 N = 1502
Mean
= 7.389
SD
= 2.388
World Values Survey (2000): study CL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.552
SD
= 2.215
World Values Survey (2000): study MX 1981 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.975
SD
= 1.772
World Values Survey (2000): study MX 1990 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.405
SD
= 2.158
World Values Survey (2000): study AR 1984 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1984 N = 1005
Mean
= 6.796
SD
= 2.103
World Values Survey (2000): study KR 1981 18+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 1981 N = 1499
Mean
= 5.338
SD
= 2.130
World Values Survey (2000): study DE West Germany 1997 18+ aged, general public, West-Germany region, Germany, 1997 N = 1495
Mean
= 7.225
SD
= 1.886
World Values Survey (2000): study ES 1996 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1996 N = 1503
Mean
= 6.611
SD
= 1.965
World Values Survey (2000): study US 1995 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1995 N = 1501
Mean
= 7.672
SD
= 1.939
World Values Survey (2000): study JP 1995 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1995 N = 1498
Mean
= 6.721
SD
= 1.831
World Values Survey (2004): study MX 1996 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1996 N = 2364
Mean
= 7.536
SD
= 2.161
World Values Survey (2000): study ZA 1996 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1996 N = 1495
Mean
= 5.586
SD
= 2.788
World Values Survey (2004): study AU 1995 18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1995 N = 2048
Mean
= 7.552
SD
= 1.874
World Values Survey (2004): study NO 1996 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1996 N = 1127
Mean
= 7.655
SD
= 1.873
World Values Survey (2000): study SE 1996 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1996 N = 1503
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.808
World Values Survey (2000): study AR 1995 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1995 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.921
SD
= 2.320
World Values Survey (2000): study FI 1996 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1996 N = 987
Mean
= 7.779
SD
= 1.542
World Values Survey (2000): study PL 1996 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1996 N = 1499
Mean
= 6.426
SD
= 2.415
World Values Survey (2004): study CH 1996 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1996 N = 1212
Mean
= 8.154
SD
= 1.740
World Values Survey (2000): study PR 1995 18+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 1995 N = 1498
Mean
= 8.096
SD
= 2.213
World Values Survey (2004): study BR 1996 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 1996 N = 1149
Mean
= 7.152
SD
= 2.677
World Values Survey (2004): study NG 1995 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1995 N = 1996
Mean
= 6.604
SD
= 2.614
World Values Survey (2000): study CL 1996 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 1996 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.908
SD
= 2.136
World Values Survey (2004): study BY 1996 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1996 N = 1506
Mean
= 4.348
SD
= 2.190
World Values Survey (2004): study IN 1996 18+ aged, general public, India, 1996 N = 2040
Mean
= 6.534
SD
= 2.636
World Values Survey (2000): study DE East Germany 1997 18+ aged, general public, East-Germany, Germany, 1997 N = 1503
Mean
= 6.636
SD
= 1.942
World Values Survey (2000): study SI 1995 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1995 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.457
SD
= 2.126
World Values Survey (2000): study BG 1997 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1997 N = 1501
Mean
= 4.658
SD
= 2.401
World Values Survey (2000): study CN 1995 18+ aged, general public, China, 1995 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.796
SD
= 2.445
World Values Survey (2004): study TW 1995 18+ aged, general public, Taiwan, 1995 N = 780
Mean
= 6.562
SD
= 1.967
World Values Survey (2004): study TR 1996 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1996 N = 1507
Mean
= 6.202
SD
= 2.652
World Values Survey (2000): study LT 1996 16+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1996 N = 1009
Mean
= 4.979
SD
= 2.611
World Values Survey (2000): study LV 1996 16+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1996 N = 1200
Mean
= 4.899
SD
= 2.215
World Values Survey (2000): study EE 1996 16+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1996 N = 1021
Mean
= 4.997
SD
= 2.272
World Values Survey (2000): study UA 1996 16+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 1996 N = 1501
Mean
= 3.954
SD
= 2.280
World Values Survey (2004): study RU 1995 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995 N = 2040
Mean
= 4.452
SD
= 2.517
World Values Survey (2000): study PE 1996 16+ aged, general public, Peru, 1996 N = 1502
Mean
= 6.366
SD
= 2.430
World Values Survey (2000): study VE 1996 16+ aged, general public, Venezuela, 1996 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.723
SD
= 2.998
World Values Survey (2004): study UY 1996 16+ aged, general public, Uruguay, 1996 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.064
SD
= 2.306
World Values Survey (2000): study MD 1996 16+ aged, general public, Moldova, 1996 N = 1496
Mean
= 3.725
SD
= 2.398
World Values Survey (2004): study GE 1996 18+ aged, general public, Georgia, 1996 N = 2008
Mean
= 4.677
SD
= 2.606
World Values Survey (2004): study AZ 1996 18+ aged, general public, Azerbaijan, 1996 N = 2002
Mean
= 5.394
SD
= 2.292
World Values Survey (2004): study DO 1996 18+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, 1996 N = 417
Mean
= 7.128
SD
= 2.462
World Values Survey (2000): study BD 1996 16+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 1501
Mean
= 6.406
SD
= 2.246
World Values Survey (2004): study CO 1998 16+ aged, general public, Colombia, 1998 N = 2996
Mean
= 8.316
SD
= 1.992
World Values Survey (2000): study RS 1996 16+ aged, general public, Serbia, 1996 N = 1498
Mean
= 5.602
SD
= 2.441
World Values Survey (2004): study ME 1996 16+ aged, general public, Montenegro, 1996 N = 240
Mean
= 6.212
SD
= 2.177
World Values Survey (2000): study MK 1997 16+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 1997 N = 1502
Mean
= 5.705
SD
= 2.190
World Values Survey (2004): study HR 1995 16+ aged, general public, Croatia, 1995 N = 1498
Mean
= 6.181
SD
= 2.132
World Values Survey (2000): study BA 1997 18+ aged, general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 1997 N = 1500
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 2.213
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990 N = 1538
Mean
= 6.207
SD
= 2.915
RUSSET panel study (2005): study RU 1997 /1 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1997 N = 2074
Mean
= 4.790
SD
= 2.304
Halman et al. (1987): study FR 1981 18+ aged, general public, France, 1981 N = 1200
Halman et al. (1987): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1981 N = 1231
Halman et al. (1987): study DE West Germany 1981 18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1981 N = 1305
Halman et al. (1987): study IT 1981 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1981 N = 1348
Halman et al. (1987): study NL 1981 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1981 N = 1221
Halman et al. (1987): study DK 1981 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981 N = 1182
Halman et al. (1987): study BE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981 N = 1145
Halman et al. (1987): study ES 1981 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1981 N = 2303
Halman et al. (1987): study IE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981 N = 1217
Halman et al. (1987): study GB Northern Ireland 1981 /1 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland, 1981 N = 312