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Happiness Measures

Measures of Happiness: O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a

Characteristics

Code:
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Focus:
Overall: Satisfaction w Life as a Whole (O-SLW)
Time frame:
currently (today, these days, presently) (c)
Mode:
1 question (sq)
Scale Type:
numeric scale (n)
Scale Range:
10

Description

Self report on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1   dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  satisfied

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Mean
Standard Deviation
Helliwell & Huang (2008): study CA 2003 Working population, Canada, 2003 N = 9000
Mean
= 7.950
SD
= 1.420
Helliwell & Huang (2008): study CA 2002 Working population, Canada, 2002 - 2003 N = 2523
Mean
= 7.950
SD
= 1.630
VanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004 University students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004 N = 361
Mean
= 7.894
SD
= 1.261
Ouweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980 Unemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90 N = 60000
Allik et al. (2018): study RU 2006 Students, Russia, 2006-2007 N = 10672
World Values Survey (2004): study AL AL South 1998 Region in nation, 18+ aged, general public, South, Albania, 1998 N = 710
Mean
= 4.869
SD
= 2.054
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Ararat Marz 1997 Region in nation, 18+ aged, general public, Ararat Marz, Armenia, 1997 N = 155
Mean
= 3.654
SD
= 2.635
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study ZZ Europe 2010 Parents in 43 European nations, 2010 N = 32553
Hermans et al. (2019): study NL 2016 Office workers followed 3 years before and after placing plants in their workplace and controls, Netherlands 2016-2018 N = 119
Beja Jr. (2013): study ZZ 2000 Married women, 44 nations, 2000 N = 14013
Pacek & Radcliff (2008): study ZZ Developed nations 1981 General public, 18 developed nations, 1981-2000 N = 20000
Ouweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980 /1 Employed and unemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90 N = 60000
Bray & Gunnell (2006): study ZZ 1999 Adults,, general public, Europe, Multiple nations, 1999 N = 32678
Daly et al. (2011): study ZZ Western nations 2005 Adults, general public, Western Countries, 2005-2008 N = 0
Mean
= 6.708
SD
= 2.336
Frey & Stutzer (2000b): study CH 1992 Adults, general public, Switzerland, 1992 N = 6000
Sandoval & Guerrero (2001): study PH 1996 Adults, general public, Philippines, 1996-2001 N = 2000
Mean
= 6.760
SD
= 2.440
Fogarty (1985): study GB 1981 Adults, general public, Britain, 1981 N = 1231
Mean
= 7.700
Veenhoven (2008b): study ZZ 1995 Adults, general public, 98 nations, 2000s N = 150000
Veenhoven (2007e): study ZZ 1995 Adults, general public, 90 nations, 1995-2000 N = 140000
Bruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990 Adults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004 N = 259947
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 2.490
Veenhoven (2004b): study ZZ 1995 Adults, general public, 65 nations, 1995 and 1997 N = 90000
Veenhoven (1999): study ZZ 1990 Adults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990 N = 75000
Ball & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995 Adults, general public, 42 nations, 1995-1997 N = 60000
Mean
= 6.350
SD
= 1.240
Veenhoven (2001): study ZZ 1990 Adults, general public, 41 nations, 1990 N = 50000
Veenhoven (2000g): study ZZ 1980 Adults, general public, 41 nations, 1980-1990 N = 50000
Veenhoven (1997a): study ZZ 1990 Adults, general public, 39 nations, around 1990 N = 40000
Fischer (2009b): study ZZ OECD member states 1997 Adults, general public, 30 OECD countries, 1997-2001 N = 45000
Fischer (2009b): study ZZ OECD member states 1997 /1 Adults, general public, 30 OECD Countries, 1997-2001 N = 45000
Ouweneel (2000): study ZZ 1980 Adults, general public, 15 nations 1980, 39 nations 1990 N = 50000
Veenhoven (1997a): study ZZ 1990 /1 Adults, general public, 13 nations of varying wealth, around 1990 N = 15000
Saris et al. (1996): study RU 1993 Adults, age range not reported, general public, Russia, 1993 N = 3271
Mean
= 5.060
SD
= 2.500
Gökdemir & Dumludag (2012): study NL 2010 Adults, Turkish and Moroccan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2010 N = 207
Mean
= 7.220
Wassell (2015): study ZZ 1981 30-60 aged, 4 western nations, 1981-2008, born before or after extension of maternity leave in nation N = 5857
Mean
= 7.350
SD
= 1.760
World Values Survey (2004): study KR 2001 /1 20+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 2001 N = 1200
Mean
= 6.213
SD
= 2.323
Kataria & Regner (2009): study NO 1996 18-85 years general public, Norway, 1996 N = 1127
Mean
= 7.653
SD
= 1.875
Abbott et al. (2016): study CN 2012 18-75 aged, general public, China, 2012-13 N = 2300
Elliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999 18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004 N = 93142
Mean
= 6.370
SD
= 2.580
Rode (2013): study ZZ World samples 1995 18+ years, general public, 87 countries, 1995-2005 N = 180000
Mean
= 6.600
SD
= 1.050
Kataria & Regner (2009): study ZW 2001 18+ general public, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 1002
Mean
= 3.940
SD
= 2.740
Kataria & Regner (2009): study VE 1996 18+ general public, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 2400
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 2.790
Kataria & Regner (2009): study UY 1996 18+ general public, Uruguay, 1996 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.060
SD
= 2.310
Kataria & Regner (2009): study UA 1996 18+ general public, Ukraine, 1996 N = 2811
Mean
= 3.950
SD
= 2.280
Kataria & Regner (2009): study UG 2001 18+ general public, Uganda, 2001 N = 1002
Mean
= 5.620
SD
= 2.470
Kataria & Regner (2009): study US 1995 18+ general public, USA, 1995 N = 1542
Mean
= 7.672
SD
= 1.939
Kataria & Regner (2009): study TW 1995 18+ general public, Taiwan, 1995 N = 780
Mean
= 6.562
SD
= 1.967
Kataria & Regner (2009): study CH 1996 18+ general public, Switzerland, 1996 N = 1212
Mean
= 8.149
SD
= 1.740
Kataria & Regner (2009): study SE 1996 18+ general public, Sweden, 1996-2000 N = 2023
Mean
= 7.710
SD
= 1.829
Kataria & Regner (2009): study ES 1995 18+ general public, Spain, 1995 N = 1211
Mean
= 6.611
SD
= 1.965
Kataria & Regner (2009): study RS 1996 18+ general public, Serbia, 1996-2001 N = 2480
Mean
= 5.590
SD
= 2.460
Kataria & Regner (2009): study RU 1995 18+ general public, Russia, 1995-1997 N = 2040
Mean
= 4.452
SD
= 2.517
Kataria & Regner (2009): study PR 1995 18+ general public, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 1884
Mean
= 8.250
SD
= 2.128
Kataria & Regner (2009): study PE 1996 18+ general public, Peru, 1996-2001 N = 2712
Mean
= 6.400
SD
= 2.410
Kataria & Regner (2009): study NG 1995 18+ general public, Nigeria, 1995-2000 N = 4018
Mean
= 6.743
SD
= 2.471
Kataria & Regner (2009): study MD 1996 18+ general public, Moldova, 1996-2004 N = 1992
Mean
= 4.146
SD
= 2.396
Kataria & Regner (2009): study MX 1995 18+ general public, Mexico, 1995- 2000 N = 3045
Mean
= 7.907
SD
= 2.304
Kataria & Regner (2009): study LT 1997 18+ general public, Lithuania, 1997 N = 1009
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 2.620
Kataria & Regner (2009): study LV 1996 18+ general public, Latvia, 1996 N = 1200
Mean
= 4.900
SD
= 2.220
Kataria & Regner (2009): study IN 1995 18+ general public, India, 1995-2001 N = 4042
Mean
= 5.823
SD
= 2.539
Kataria & Regner (2009): study DE 1997 18+ general public, Germany, 1997 N = 2026
Mean
= 6.929
SD
= 1.939
Kataria & Regner (2009): study GE 1996 18+ general public, Georgia, 1996 N = 2008
Mean
= 4.680
SD
= 2.610
Kataria & Regner (2009): study FI 1996 18+ general public, Finland, 1996 N = 987
Mean
= 7.779
SD
= 1.542
Kataria & Regner (2009): study EE 1996 18+ general public, Estonia, 1996 N = 1021
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 2.270
Kataria & Regner (2009): study DO 1996 18+ general public, Dominican Republic, 1996 N = 417
Mean
= 7.130
SD
= 2.460
Kataria & Regner (2009): study HR 1996 18+ general public, Croatia, 1996 N = 1196
Mean
= 6.180
SD
= 2.130
Kataria & Regner (2009): study CL 1996 18+ general public, Chile, 1996-2000 N = 2200
Mean
= 7.024
SD
= 2.150
Kataria & Regner (2009): study BR 1997 18+ general public, Brazil, 1997 N = 1143
Mean
= 7.153
SD
= 2.680
Kataria & Regner (2009): study BA 1998 18+ general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 1998-2001 N = 2000
Mean
= 5.840
SD
= 2.300
Kataria & Regner (2009): study BY 1996 18+ general public, Belarus, 1996 N = 2092
Mean
= 4.348
SD
= 2.190
Kataria & Regner (2009): study AZ 1997 18+ general public, Azerbaijan, 1997 N = 2002
Mean
= 5.390
SD
= 2.290
Kataria & Regner (2009): study AU 1995 18+ general public, Australia, 1995 N = 2048
Mean
= 7.552
SD
= 1.874
Kataria & Regner (2009): study AM 1997 18+ general public, Armenia, 1997 N = 2000
Mean
= 4.320
SD
= 2.360
Kataria & Regner (2009): study AR 1995 18+ general public, Argentina, 1995-1999 N = 2359
Mean
= 7.146
SD
= 2.292
Sacks et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 1981 /1 18+ general public, 61 countries, 1981-2004 N = 116527
Orizo (1991): study ES 1990 18+ aged. Spain, 1990. N = 1510
Mean
= 7.150
SD
= 1.920
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW Mashonaland West 2001 18+ aged, general public,Mashonaland West, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 96
Mean
= 4.541
SD
= 2.449
World Values Survey (2004): study MD MD: South 1996 18+ aged, general public,MD: South region, Moldova, 1996-2005 N = 388
Mean
= 4.909
SD
= 2.415
World Values Survey (2004): study CY Limassol (Lemesos) 2005 18+ aged, general public,Limassol (Lemesos), Cyprus, 2005 N = 121
Mean
= 7.900
SD
= 2.013
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Karnataka 1990 18+ aged, general public,Karnataka region, India, 1990-1999 N = 465
Mean
= 5.237
SD
= 2.180
World Values Survey (2004): study ID Jambi 2001 18+ aged, general public,Jambi region, Indonesia, 2001-2005 N = 197
Mean
= 7.117
SD
= 2.329
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Isfahan 2001 18+ aged, general public,Isfahan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 333
Mean
= 6.204
SD
= 2.393
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Hilla/Babyl 2004 18+ aged, general public,Hilla/Babyl region, Iraq, 2004 N = 226
Mean
= 5.331
SD
= 1.443
Inglehart et al. (2008): study DE East Germany 2005 18+ aged, general public,East-Germany, Germany, 2005 N = 1069
Mean
= 6.881
SD
= 2.009
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Bihar 1990 18+ aged, general public,Bihar region, India, 1990-1999 N = 826
Mean
= 5.961
SD
= 2.382
Easterlin (2014a): study BY 1984 18+ aged, general public,Belarus, 1984-1999 N = 200000
Mean
= 4.810
World Values Survey (2004): study FR Île de France (Paris) 1981 18+ aged, general public, Île de France (Paris) region, France, 1981-2005 N = 186
Mean
= 6.999
SD
= 2.024
Easterlin (2014a): study ZZ Developing nations 1990 18+ aged, general public, urban areas, developing nations, 1990-2010 N = 7000
Samanni & Holmberg (2010): study ZZ 1999 18+ aged, general public, in 90 nations, 1999-2008 N = 100000
World Values Survey (2004): study CH Zürich 1989 18+ aged, general public, Zürich, Switzerland, 1989-2005 N = 101
Mean
= 8.253
SD
= 1.612
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Západoèeský kraj (West Bohemia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Západoèeský kraj (West Bohemia), Czech Republic, 1990-1999 N = 204
Mean
= 6.480
SD
= 2.258
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Zulia/Falcón 1996 18+ aged, general public, Zulia/Falcón, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 180
Mean
= 6.919
SD
= 3.228
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Zulia 1996 18+ aged, general public, Zulia, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 180
Mean
= 7.353
SD
= 2.969
World Values Survey (2004): study NL Zuid-Holland (South Holland) 1981 18+ aged, general public, Zuid-Holland region, Netherlands, 1981-2005 N = 231
Mean
= 7.747
SD
= 1.357
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW 2001 18+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 1002
Mean
= 3.938
SD
= 2.737
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZM 2005 18+ aged, general public, Zambia, 2005 N = 1463
Mean
= 6.059
SD
= 2.494
World Values Survey (2004): study ZM ZM: Southern Province 2005 18+ aged, general public, ZM: Southern Province, Zambia, 2005 N = 206
Mean
= 5.354
SD
= 2.561
World Values Survey (2004): study ZM ZM: Northern Province 2005 18+ aged, general public, ZM: Northern Province, Zambia, 2005 N = 138
Mean
= 6.288
SD
= 2.321
World Values Survey (2004): study ZM ZM: Eastern Province 2005 18+ aged, general public, ZM: Eastern Province, Zambia, 2005 N = 147
Mean
= 6.519
SD
= 1.932
World Values Survey (2004): study ZM ZM: Central Province 2005 18+ aged, general public, ZM: Central Province, Zambia, 2005 N = 150
Mean
= 7.179
SD
= 2.249
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA ZA: Western Cape 1990 18+ aged, general public, ZA: Western Cape, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 1360
Mean
= 6.875
SD
= 2.700
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA ZA: Free State 1990 18+ aged, general public, ZA: Free State, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 520
Mean
= 6.451
SD
= 2.839
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA ZA: Eastern Cape 1990 18+ aged, general public, ZA: Eastern Cape, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 1074
Mean
= 5.078
SD
= 2.666
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA ZA Northern cape 1990 18+ aged, general public, ZA Northern cape, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 230
Mean
= 6.544
SD
= 2.607
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Yunnan 1990 18+ aged, general public, Yunnan, China, 1990-2005 N = 178
Mean
= 5.734
SD
= 2.736
World Values Survey (2004): study GB York, Humberside 1981 18+ aged, general public, York, Humberside region, United Kingdom, 1981-2005 N = 181
Mean
= 7.569
SD
= 1.748
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Xinjiang (autonomous region) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Xinjiang, China, 1990-2005 N = 112
Mean
= 7.507
SD
= 1.930
BCS (2010): study ZZ World samples 2005 18+ aged, general public, World, 2005 N = 35000
Easterlin & Angelescu McVey (2009): study ZZ World samples 1981 18+ aged, general public, World samples, 1981-2004 N = 195
World Values Survey (2004): study RU RU: Western Siberia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Western Siberia region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 193
Mean
= 4.374
SD
= 2.519
World Values Survey (2004): study NO Western Norway 1982 18+ aged, general public, Western Norway region, Norway, 1982-1996, 2005 N = 181
Mean
= 7.765
SD
= 1.633
Inglehart et al. (2008): study DE West Germany 2006 18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, Germany, 2006 N = 1076
Mean
= 7.394
SD
= 1.666
Wohlfahrtssurvey (2000): study DE West Germany 1999 18+ aged, general public, West-Germany region, Germany, 1999 N = 991
Mean
= 7.980
SD
= 1.700
World Values Survey (2000): study DE West Germany 1997 18+ aged, general public, West-Germany region, Germany, 1997 N = 1495
Mean
= 7.225
SD
= 1.886
World Values Survey (2000): study DE West Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, West-Germany region, Germany, 1990 N = 1501
Mean
= 7.220
SD
= 1.921
World Values Survey (2004): study NG NG: West 1990 18+ aged, general public, West region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 1151
Mean
= 6.798
SD
= 2.516
World Values Survey (2004): study US West South Central 1982 18+ aged, general public, West South Central, United States, 1982-2005 N = 424
Mean
= 7.721
SD
= 1.861
World Values Survey (2004): study SK West Slowakia 1990 18+ aged, general public, West Slowakia region, Slovakia, 1990-2005 N = 158
Mean
= 5.987
SD
= 2.149
World Values Survey (2004): study US West North Central 1982 18+ aged, general public, West North Central, United States, 1982-2005 N = 245
Mean
= 7.696
SD
= 1.776
World Values Survey (2004): study ID West Java(Jawa Barat) 2001 18+ aged, general public, West Java(Jawa Barat) region, Indonesia, 2001-2005 N = 705
Mean
= 6.752
SD
= 2.367
Timmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990 N = 2201
Mean
= 7.220
Halman et al. (1987): study DE West Germany 1981 18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1981 N = 1305
World Values Survey (2004): study IN West Bengal 1990 18+ aged, general public, West Bengal region, India, 1990-1999 N = 695
Mean
= 4.717
SD
= 2.543
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ Wellington 1998 18+ aged, general public, Wellington, New Zealand, 1998 N = 199
Mean
= 7.817
SD
= 1.822
World Values Survey (2004): study GB Wales 1981 18+ aged, general public, Wales region, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 101
Mean
= 7.809
SD
= 1.720
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ Waikato 1998 18+ aged, general public, Waikato, New Zealand, 1998 N = 155
Mean
= 7.807
SD
= 1.824
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Východoèeský kraj (Visocina) (East Bohemia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Východoèeský kraj (East Bohemia), Czech Republic, 1990 N = 226
Mean
= 6.347
SD
= 1.987
World Values Survey (2004): study SE Västra Götalands län 1982 18+ aged, general public, Västra Götalands län region, Sweden, 1982-2005 N = 217
Mean
= 7.739
SD
= 1.700
World Values Survey (2004): study GH Volta 2005 18+ aged, general public, Volta region, Ghana, 2005 N = 128
Mean
= 5.403
SD
= 1.866
World Values Survey (2004): study RU Volga; Povolzskij 1990 18+ aged, general public, Volga; Povolzskij region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 115
Mean
= 5.279
SD
= 2.645
World Values Survey (2004): study RS Vojvodina 1996 18+ aged, general public, Vojvodina region, Serbia, 1996-2005 N = 296
Mean
= 5.574
SD
= 2.387
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Vitebsk oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Vitebsk region, Belarus, 1990 N = 273
Mean
= 4.623
SD
= 2.326
World Values Survey (2004): study LT Vilnius 1990 18+ aged, general public, Vilnius, Lithuania, 1990-1999 N = 272
Mean
= 5.212
SD
= 2.585
Inglehart et al. (2008): study VN 2005 18+ aged, general public, Viet Nam, 2005 N = 1495
Mean
= 7.094
SD
= 1.891
World Values Survey (2004): study VN 2001 18+ aged, general public, Viet Nam, 2001 N = 995
Mean
= 6.520
SD
= 2.060
World Values Survey (2004): study LV Vidzeme 1990 18+ aged, general public, Vidzeme region, Latvia, 19901999 N = 103
Mean
= 4.471
SD
= 2.167
World Values Survey (2004): study VE 2000 18+ aged, general public, Venezuela, 2000 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.517
SD
= 2.495
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Varna 1990 18+ aged, general public, Varna region, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 213
Mean
= 5.005
SD
= 2.361
World Values Survey (2004): study CL Valparaiso (V Región: Valparaíso. Quilpue, Villa Alemana, Viña del Mar) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Valparaiso, Chile, 1990-2005 N = 189
Mean
= 7.823
SD
= 2.016
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Valenciano 1981 18+ aged, general public, Valenciano region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 516
Mean
= 6.959
SD
= 1.878
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: southeast 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: southeast, Viet Nam, 1990-2005 N = 333
Mean
= 6.336
SD
= 1.737
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: red river delta 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: red river delta, Viet Nam, 2001-2005 N = 487
Mean
= 6.857
SD
= 1.871
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: mekong river delta 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: mekong river delta, Viet Nam, 1990-2005 N = 534
Mean
= 7.489
SD
= 1.993
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: central highland 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: central highland, Viet Nam,1990-2005 N = 158
Mean
= 6.374
SD
= 2.038
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: central coast 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: central coast, Viet Nam, 1990-2005 N = 257
Mean
= 6.374
SD
= 2.038
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: North east 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: North east, Viet Nam, 1990-2005 N = 321
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 2.059
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: North central 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: North central, Viet Nam, 1990-2005 N = 274
Mean
= 6.907
SD
= 1.876
World Values Survey (2004): study VE VE: Distrito Capital 1996 18+ aged, general public, VE: Distrito Capital, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 177
Mean
= 7.363
SD
= 2.316
World Values Survey (2004): study FI Uudenmaan (in Southern Finland) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Uudenmaan (in Southern Finland) region, Finland, 1990-2005 N = 231
Mean
= 7.778
SD
= 1.602
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Uttar Pradesh 1990 18+ aged, general public, Uttar Pradesh region, India, 1990-1999 N = 1387
Mean
= 6.016
SD
= 2.602
World Values Survey (2004): study PK Urban Sindh 1997 18+ aged, general public, Urban Sindh region, Pakistan, 1997-2001 N = 190
Mean
= 5.346
SD
= 1.387
World Values Survey (2004): study PK Urban Punjab 1997 18+ aged, general public, Urban Punjab region, Pakistan, 1997-2001 N = 548
Mean
= 5.109
SD
= 1.415
World Values Survey (2004): study RU Urals 1990 18+ aged, general public, Urals region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 487
Mean
= 5.364
SD
= 2.685
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Upper egypt 1999 18+ aged, general public, Upper egypt region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 992
Mean
= 5.397
SD
= 3.320
Inglehart et al. (2008): study US 2006 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2006 N = 1249
Mean
= 7.320
SD
= 1.722
World Values Survey (2004): study US 1999 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1999 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.657
SD
= 1.838
World Values Survey (2000): study US 1995 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1995 N = 1501
Mean
= 7.672
SD
= 1.939
World Values Survey (2000): study US 1990 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 7.708
SD
= 1.837
World Values Survey (2000): study US 1981 /1 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1981 N = 1481
Mean
= 7.725
SD
= 1.897
Inglehart et al. (2008): study GB 2006 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2006 N = 1038
Mean
= 7.598
SD
= 1.607
World Values Survey (2004): study GB 1999 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1999 N = 994
Mean
= 7.399
SD
= 1.933
World Values Survey (2004): study GB 1998 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1998 N = 1497
Mean
= 7.593
SD
= 1.928
World Values Survey (2000): study GB 1990 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1990 N = 1484
Mean
= 7.475
SD
= 1.922
Abrams (1985): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 1231
Mean
= 7.120
World Values Survey (2000): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 1499
Mean
= 7.655
SD
= 1.895
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Umara/Maysan 2004 18+ aged, general public, Umara/Maysan region, Iraq, 2004 N = 238
Mean
= 5.200
SD
= 1.229
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study UA 2010 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study UA 2006 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2006 N = 995
Mean
= 5.667
SD
= 2.358
World Values Survey (2004): study UA 1999 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 1999 N = 1207
Mean
= 4.562
SD
= 2.596
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Ukraine Western 1996 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine Western region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 220
Mean
= 6.261
SD
= 2.252
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Ukraine Southern 1996 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine Southern region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 151
Mean
= 6.240
SD
= 2.329
World Values Survey (2004): study UG 2001 18+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2001 N = 1002
Mean
= 5.618
SD
= 2.467
Snoep (2008): study ZZ Western nations 2000 18+ aged, general public, USA, The Netherlands, Denmark, 2000 N = 3226
Timmermans (1997): study US 1990 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1990 N = 1839
Mean
= 7.710
World Values Survey (2004): study US US South Atlantic 1982 18+ aged, general public, US South Atlantic, United States, 1982-2005 N = 551
Mean
= 7.578
SD
= 1.735
World Values Survey (2004): study US US North West 1982 18+ aged, general public, US North West, United States, 1982-2005 N = 155
Mean
= 7.870
SD
= 1.635
World Values Survey (2004): study US US Middle Atlantic States 1982 18+ aged, general public, US Middle Atlantic States, United States, 1982-2005 N = 651
Mean
= 7.479
SD
= 1.830
World Values Survey (2004): study US US East South Central 1982 18+ aged, general public, US East South Central, United States, 1982-2005 N = 335
Mean
= 7.468
SD
= 2.014
World Values Survey (2004): study US US East North Central 1982 18+ aged, general public, US East North Central, United States, 1982-2005 N = 245
Mean
= 7.592
SD
= 1.868
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study TR 2010 18+ aged, general public, Türkiye, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study FI Turun ja Porin 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turun ja Porin region, Finland, 1990-2005 N = 171
Mean
= 7.506
SD
= 1.842
Inglehart et al. (2008): study TR 2007 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2007 N = 1346
Mean
= 7.458
SD
= 2.229
World Values Survey (2004): study TR 2000 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2000 N = 4607
Mean
= 5.625
SD
= 2.796
World Values Survey (2004): study TR 1996 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1996 N = 1507
Mean
= 6.202
SD
= 2.652
Selim (2008): study TR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001 N = 6338
Mean
= 6.127
SD
= 2.574
World Values Survey (2000): study TR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990 N = 1030
Mean
= 6.402
SD
= 2.452
Timmermans (1997): study TR 1991 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990 N = 1030
Mean
= 6.400
World Values Survey (2004): study TR South East Anatolia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turkey South East Anatolia region, Turkey, 1990-2005 N = 137
Mean
= 6.060
SD
= 2.590
World Values Survey (2004): study TR Turkey Mediterranean 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turkey Mediterranean region, Turkey, 1990-2005 N = 163
Mean
= 7.109
SD
= 2.280
World Values Survey (2004): study TR Turkey Aegean 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turkey Aegean region, Turkey, 1990-2005 N = 159
Mean
= 7.178
SD
= 1.693
Inglehart et al. (2008): study TT 2005 18+ aged, general public, Trinidad and Tobago, 2005 N = 1002
Mean
= 7.324
SD
= 2.158
World Values Survey (2004): study RO Transylvania 1993 18+ aged, general public, Transylvania region, Romania, 1993-2001 N = 243
Mean
= 5.422
SD
= 2.565
World Values Survey (2004): study DZ Tlemcen 2002 18+ aged, general public, Tlemcen region, Algeria, 2002 N = 119
Mean
= 5.891
SD
= 2.982
World Values Survey (2004): study AL Tirana 1998 18+ aged, general public, Tirana, Albania, 1998 N = 314
Mean
= 5.009
SD
= 1.927
World Values Survey (2004): study CH Ticino 1989 18+ aged, general public, Ticino, Switzerland, 1989-2005 N = 201
Mean
= 7.971
SD
= 1.918
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Thueringen 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thueringen region, Germany, 2005 N = 340
Mean
= 6.575
SD
= 2.104
Timmermans (1997): study NL 1990 18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1990 N = 1017
Mean
= 7.840
Inglehart et al. (2008): study TH 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thailand, 2005 N = 1534
Mean
= 7.214
SD
= 1.805
World Values Survey (2004): study TH Thailand South 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thailand South region, Thailand, 2005 N = 196
Mean
= 7.688
SD
= 1.603
World Values Survey (2004): study TH Thailand North-East 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thailand North-East region, Thailand, 2005 N = 535
Mean
= 6.757
SD
= 1.669
World Values Survey (2004): study TH Thailand North 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thailand North region, Thailand, 2005 N = 205
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.944
World Values Survey (2004): study TH Thailand Central 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thailand Central region, Thailand, 2005 N = 583
Mean
= 7.340
SD
= 1.862
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Tekrit/Salahadin 2004 18+ aged, general public, Tekrit/Salahadin region, Iraq, 2004 N = 276
Mean
= 4.397
SD
= 2.379
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Tehran 2001 18+ aged, general public, Tehran region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 938
Mean
= 6.580
SD
= 2.348
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Tblissi 1996 18+ aged, general public, Tblissi region, Georgia, 1996-2005 N = 911
Mean
= 4.830
SD
= 2.469
World Values Survey (2004): study TZ 2001 18+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2001 N = 1171
Mean
= 3.870
SD
= 3.220
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Tangail (Dhaka bibhag) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Tangail (Dhaka bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 154
Mean
= 6.459
SD
= 2.821
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Tamil Nadu 1990 18+ aged, general public, Tamil Nadu region, India, 1990-1999 N = 657
Mean
= 6.876
SD
= 2.148
World Values Survey (2004): study EE Talinn (Harjumaa) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Talinn (Harjumaa) region, Estonia, 1990-1999 N = 357
Mean
= 5.036
SD
= 2.421
Inglehart et al. (2008): study TW 2006 18+ aged, general public, Taiwan, 2006 N = 1227
Mean
= 6.582
SD
= 2.063
World Values Survey (2004): study TW 1995 18+ aged, general public, Taiwan, 1995 N = 780
Mean
= 6.562
SD
= 1.967
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Taegu/Daedu 1982 18+ aged, general public, Taegu/Daedu, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 60
Mean
= 5.979
SD
= 2.309
World Values Survey (2004): study TW TW South 1994 18+ aged, general public, TW South, Taiwan, 1994 N = 650
Mean
= 6.464
SD
= 2.051
World Values Survey (2004): study TW TW North 1994 18+ aged, general public, TW North, Taiwan, 1994 N = 659
Mean
= 6.718
SD
= 1.892
World Values Survey (2004): study TW TW East 1994 18+ aged, general public, TW East, Taiwan, 1994 N = 207
Mean
= 6.536
SD
= 2.137
World Values Survey (2004): study TW TW Center 1994 18+ aged, general public, TW Center, Taiwan, 1994 N = 488
Mean
= 6.440
SD
= 2.208
World Values Survey (2004): study BR São Paulo 1998 18+ aged, general public, São Paulo region, Brazil, 1998 N = 428
Mean
= 7.451
SD
= 2.273
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Sylhet (Sylhet bibhag) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Sylhet (Sylhet bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 157
Mean
= 6.152
SD
= 1.758
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study CH 2010 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CH 2007 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2007 N = 1241
Mean
= 8.008
SD
= 1.580
Timmermans (1997): study CH 1989 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1999 N = 1400
Mean
= 8.380
World Values Survey (2004): study CH 1996 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1996 N = 1212
Mean
= 8.154
SD
= 1.740
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study SE 2010 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study SE 2006 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2006 N = 1003
Mean
= 7.739
SD
= 1.603
World Values Survey (2004): study SE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1999 N = 1014
Mean
= 7.655
SD
= 1.846
World Values Survey (2000): study SE 1996 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1996 N = 1503
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.808
Timmermans (1997): study SE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1990 N = 1047
Mean
= 7.970
World Values Survey (2000): study SE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1990 N = 1497
Mean
= 7.970
SD
= 1.739
World Values Survey (2000): study SE 1982 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1982 N = 954
Mean
= 8.010
SD
= 1.719
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Sur-Peru 1996 18+ aged, general public, Sur-Peru region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 280
Mean
= 6.166
SD
= 2.346
World Values Survey (2004): study CL CL Sur 1990 18+ aged, general public, Sur, Chile, 1990-2005 N = 692
Mean
= 7.034
SD
= 2.099
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Sur Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Sur Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 245
Mean
= 8.369
SD
= 1.977
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Sulaimania 2004 18+ aged, general public, Sulaimania region, Iraq, 2004 N = 291
Mean
= 6.285
SD
= 2.156
World Values Survey (2004): study BR BR Sul, South 1998 18+ aged, general public, Sul, South region, Brazil, 1998 N = 414
Mean
= 7.370
SD
= 2.248
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Sucre,Monagas,Espar.,Amazon 1996 18+ aged, general public, Sucre,Monagas,Espar.,Amazon, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 219
Mean
= 6.130
SD
= 2.321
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Stredoceský kraj (Central Bohemia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Støedoèeský kraj (Central Bohemia), Czech Republic, 1990-1999 N = 209
Mean
= 6.494
SD
= 1.953
World Values Survey (2004): study SE Stockholm 1982 18+ aged, general public, Stockholm region, Sweden, 1982-2005 N = 257
Mean
= 7.760
SD
= 1.376
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study ES 2010 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ES 2007 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 2007 N = 1195
Mean
= 7.320
SD
= 1.502
World Values Survey (2004): study ES 1999 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1999 N = 2409
Mean
= 7.046
SD
= 1.913
World Values Survey (2000): study ES 1996 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1996 N = 1503
Mean
= 6.611
SD
= 1.965
World Values Survey (2000): study ES 1990 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 7.137
SD
= 1.928
Timmermans (1997): study ES 1990 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990 N = 4147
Mean
= 7.140
Halman et al. (1987): study ES 1981 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1981 N = 2303
World Values Survey (2000): study ES 1981 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1981 N = 1501
Mean
= 6.599
SD
= 2.007
World Values Survey (2004): study PH South-Luzon 1996 18+ aged, general public, South-Luzon region, Philippines, 1996-2001 N = 600
Mean
= 6.946
SD
= 2.404
World Values Survey (2004): study RS South-East Serbia 1996 18+ aged, general public, South-East Serbia region, Serbia, 1996-2005 N = 303
Mean
= 5.606
SD
= 2.238
World Values Survey (2004): study RU RU: South 1990 18+ aged, general public, South region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 589
Mean
= 6.002
SD
= 2.448
Timmermans (1997): study KR 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 1990 N = 1251
Mean
= 6.690
World Values Survey (2004): study NO South Eastern Norway 1982 18+ aged, general public, South Eastern Norway region, Norway, 1982-1996, 2005 N = 190
Mean
= 8.009
SD
= 1.316
World Values Survey (2004): study CN CN South 1990 18+ aged, general public, South China, China, 1990-2005 N = 398
Mean
= 6.700
SD
= 2.271
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZA 2007 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2007 N = 2988
Mean
= 7.024
SD
= 2.404
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA 2001 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2001 N = 3000
Mean
= 5.812
SD
= 2.723
World Values Survey (2000): study ZA 1996 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1996 N = 1495
Mean
= 5.586
SD
= 2.788
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA ZA: North West 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 530
Mean
= 5.028
SD
= 2.811
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990 N = 1538
Mean
= 6.207
SD
= 2.915
Timmermans (1997): study ZA 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990 N = 2736
Mean
= 6.210
World Values Survey (2000): study ZA 1981 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1981 N = 1529
Mean
= 6.301
SD
= 2.411
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Sohag (Suhaj) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Sohag (Suhaj) region, Egypt, 1999 N = 125
Mean
= 5.296
SD
= 2.769
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Sofia Province 1990 18+ aged, general public, Sofia Province, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 228
Mean
= 4.946
SD
= 2.144
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study SI 2010 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study SI 2005 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2005 N = 1037
Mean
= 7.241
SD
= 1.953
World Values Survey (2004): study SI 1999 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1999 N = 1006
Mean
= 7.230
SD
= 2.150
World Values Survey (2000): study SI 1995 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1995 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.457
SD
= 2.126
World Values Survey (2000): study SI 1990 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.294
SD
= 2.209
Timmermans (1997): study SI 1992 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1990 N = 1035
Mean
= 5.030
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study SK 2010 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study SK 1999 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 1999 N = 1512
Mean
= 6.025
SD
= 2.220
World Values Survey (2004): study SK 1998 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 1998 N = 1095
Mean
= 6.069
SD
= 2.238
World Values Survey (2000): study SK 1990 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 1990 N = 1491
Mean
= 6.151
SD
= 2.169
World Values Survey (2004): study SE Skåne 1982 18+ aged, general public, Skåne region, Sweden, 1982-2005 N = 135
Mean
= 7.661
SD
= 1.828
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Skopski 1998 18+ aged, general public, Skopski region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 568
Mean
= 5.589
SD
= 2.453
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Siragonj (Rajshahi bibhag) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Siragonj (Rajshahi bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 131
Mean
= 5.445
SD
= 2.214
World Values Survey (2004): study SG 2002 18+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2002 N = 1512
Mean
= 7.131
SD
= 1.720
World Values Survey (2004): study ML Sikasso 2005 18+ aged, general public, Sikasso region, Mali, 2005 N = 257
Mean
= 5.481
SD
= 2.925
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Shirak Masrz 1997 18+ aged, general public, Shirak Masrz region, Armenia, 1997 N = 190
Mean
= 4.486
SD
= 2.161
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Shida Karti 1996 18+ aged, general public, Shida Karti region, Georgia, 1996-2005 N = 308
Mean
= 4.954
SD
= 2.609
World Values Survey (2004): study AZ Shemakha 1997 18+ aged, general public, Shemakha region, Azerbaijan, 1997 N = 148
Mean
= 5.740
SD
= 1.236
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Sharkia (Ash Sharqīyah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Sharkia (Ash Sharqīyah) region, Egypt, 1999 N = 225
Mean
= 5.921
SD
= 2.764
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Shanghai 1990 18+ aged, general public, Shanghai, China, 1990-2005 N = 191
Mean
= 7.206
SD
= 2.007
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Shangdong 1990 18+ aged, general public, Shangdong, China, 1990-2005 N = 366
Mean
= 7.409
SD
= 2.211
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Shaanxi 1990 18+ aged, general public, Shaanxi, China, 1990-2005 N = 210
Mean
= 7.219
SD
= 2.172
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Severoèeský kraj (North Bohemia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Severoèeský kraj (North Bohemia), Czech Republic, 1990-1999 N = 242
Mean
= 6.262
SD
= 2.292
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Severomoravský kraj (North Moravia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Severomoravský kraj (North Moravia), Czech Republic, 1990-1999 N = 387
Mean
= 6.284
SD
= 2.117
World Values Survey (2004): study DZ Setif 2002 18+ aged, general public, Setif region, Algeria, 2002 N = 187
Mean
= 5.065
SD
= 2.682
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study RS 2010 18+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study RS 2006 18+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2006 N = 1220
Mean
= 6.006
SD
= 2.087
World Values Survey (2004): study RS 2001 18+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2001 N = 1200
Mean
= 5.620
SD
= 2.470
World Values Survey (2004): study RS 1996 18+ aged, general public, Serbia, 1996 N = 1265
Mean
= 5.560
SD
= 2.447
World Values Survey (2004): study MY Selangor 2005 18+ aged, general public, Selangor region, Malaysia, 2005 N = 306
Mean
= 6.900
SD
= 1.823
World Values Survey (2004): study ML Segou 2005 18+ aged, general public, Segou region, Mali, 2005 N = 239
Mean
= 6.332
SD
= 2.731
World Values Survey (2004): study GB Scotland 1981 18+ aged, general public, Scotland region, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 229
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.745
Abrams (1985): study ZZ Scandinavia 1981 18+ aged, general public, Scandinavian nations, 1981 N = 4308
Mean
= 8.010
World Values Survey (2004): study SI Savinjska 1992 18+ aged, general public, Savinjska region, Slovenia, 1992-2005 N = 158
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 2.011
World Values Survey (2004): study SA 2003 18+ aged, general public, Saudi Arabia, 2003 N = 1502
Mean
= 7.278
SD
= 2.274
World Values Survey (2004): study CA Saskatchewan 1982 18+ aged, general public, Saskatchewan region, Canada, 1982 N = 134
Mean
= 7.744
SD
= 1.460
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Samegreio 1996 18+ aged, general public, Samegreio region, Georgia, 1996-2005 N = 157
Mean
= 5.252
SD
= 2.157
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Samawa/Muthana 2004 18+ aged, general public, Samawa/Muthana region, Iraq, 2004 N = 235
Mean
= 5.337
SD
= 2.918
World Values Survey (2004): study BF Sahel, Oudalan 2005 18+ aged, general public, Sahel, Oudalan region, Burkina Faso, 2000 N = 102
Mean
= 5.618
SD
= 1.561
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Sachsen-Anhalt 2005 18+ aged, general public, Sachsen-Anhalt region, Germany, 2005 N = 344
Mean
= 6.633
SD
= 2.017
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Sachsen 2005 18+ aged, general public, Sachsen region, Germany, 2005 N = 608
Mean
= 6.871
SD
= 1.920
World Values Survey (2004): study MY Sabah 2005 18+ aged, general public, Sabah, Malaysia, 2005 N = 130
Mean
= 6.469
SD
= 2.106
World Values Survey (2004): study SV SV San Salvador 1999 18+ aged, general public, SV San Salvador, El Salvador, 1999 N = 379
Mean
= 7.496
SD
= 2.355
World Values Survey (2004): study SV SV La Libertad 1999 18+ aged, general public, SV La Libertad, El Salvador, 1999 N = 120
Mean
= 7.703
SD
= 2.238
World Values Survey (2004): study ET ET SNNP Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's (South south-western) 2005 18+ aged, general public, SNNP Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's (South south-western) region, Ethiopia, 2005 N = 308
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.987
Inglehart et al. (2008): study RW 2005 18+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2005 N = 1507
Mean
= 4.966
SD
= 2.110
Easterlin (2014a): study RU 1988 18+ aged, general public, Russia,1988-2005 N = 200000
Mean
= 6.090
World Values Survey (2012): study RU 2011 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 2011 N = 2500
Mean
= 6.174
SD
= 2.181
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study RU 2010 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study RU 2005 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 2005 N = 2033
Mean
= 6.098
SD
= 2.435
World Values Survey (2004): study RU 1999 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1999 N = 2500
Mean
= 4.735
SD
= 2.563
RUSSET panel study (2005): study RU 1997 /1 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1997 N = 2074
Mean
= 4.790
SD
= 2.304
World Values Survey (2004): study RU 1995 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995 N = 2040
Mean
= 4.452
SD
= 2.517
World Values Survey (2000): study RU 1990 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1990 N = 1508
Mean
= 5.353
SD
= 2.391
Timmermans (1997): study RU 1991 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1990 N = 1961
Mean
= 5.350
World Values Survey (2004): study PK Rural Punjab 1997 18+ aged, general public, Rural Punjab region, Pakistan, 1997-2001 N = 371
Mean
= 4.466
SD
= 1.503
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Ruhengeri 2005 18+ aged, general public, Ruhengeri region, Rwanda, 2005 N = 152
Mean
= 4.988
SD
= 2.142
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study RO 2010 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study RO 2005 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 2005 N = 1776
Mean
= 5.753
SD
= 2.383
World Values Survey (2004): study RO 1999 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1999 N = 1146
Mean
= 5.230
SD
= 2.770
World Values Survey (2004): study RO 1998 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1998 N = 1239
Mean
= 4.859
SD
= 2.472
Timmermans (1997): study RO 1993 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1990 N = 1103
Mean
= 5.880
World Values Survey (2000): study RO 1990 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1990 N = 1103
Mean
= 5.879
SD
= 2.332
World Values Survey (2004): study NO Rogaland 1982 18+ aged, general public, Rogaland region, Norway, 1982-1996, 2005 N = 123
Mean
= 8.084
SD
= 1.535
World Values Survey (2004): study SA Riyad 2003 18+ aged, general public, Riyad region, Saudi Arabia, 2003 N = 343
Mean
= 7.427
SD
= 2.141
World Values Survey (2004): study BR Rio de Janeiro 1998 18+ aged, general public, Rio de Janeiro region, Brazil, 1998 N = 190
Mean
= 7.704
SD
= 1.960
World Values Survey (2004): study LV Riga 1990 18+ aged, general public, Riga region, Latvia, 1990 N = 69
Mean
= 5.200
SD
= 2.427
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Rheinland -Pfalz 2005 18+ aged, general public, Rheinland -Pfalz region, Germany, 2005 N = 129
Mean
= 7.368
SD
= 1.566
World Values Survey (2004): study CL Región Metropolitana de Santiago 1990 18+ aged, general public, Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile, 1990-2005 N = 2272
Mean
= 7.203
SD
= 2.155
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA Reaf/Vaal 1990 18+ aged, general public, Reaf/Vaal, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 241
Mean
= 7.580
SD
= 1.794
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Ramadi 2004 18+ aged, general public, Ramadi region, Iraq, 2004 N = 245
Mean
= 2.461
SD
= 2.042
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Rajshahi (Rajshahi bibhag) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Rajshahi (Rajshahi bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 129
Mean
= 6.297
SD
= 2.876
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Rajasthan 1990 18+ aged, general public, Rajasthan region, India, 1990-1999 N = 431
Mean
= 6.712
SD
= 2.239
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Rabat-Salé-Zemmour 1999 18+ aged, general public, Rabat-Salé-Zemmour region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 314
Mean
= 5.700
SD
= 1.917
World Values Survey (2004): study AU Queensland 1981 18+ aged, general public, Queensland region, Australia, 1981 N = 573
Mean
= 7.497
SD
= 1.817
World Values Survey (2004): study CA Quebec 1982 18+ aged, general public, Quebec, Canada, 1982-2005 N = 1038
Mean
= 7.774
SD
= 1.827
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Qalubia (Al Qalyūbīyah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Qalubia (Al Qalyūbīyah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 199
Mean
= 4.755
SD
= 3.234
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Pusan/Busan 1982 18+ aged, general public, Pusan/Busan, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 90
Mean
= 5.901
SD
= 1.962
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Punjab 1990 18+ aged, general public, Punjab region, India, 1990-1999 N = 169
Mean
= 6.794
SD
= 2.445
World Values Survey (2004): study PR 2001 18+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 2001 N = 720
Mean
= 8.492
SD
= 1.964
World Values Survey (2000): study PR 1995 18+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 1995 N = 1498
Mean
= 8.096
SD
= 2.213
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Povardarski, Povardari 1998 18+ aged, general public, Povardarski, Povardari region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 225
Mean
= 5.676
SD
= 2.290
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study PT 2010 18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study PT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1999 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.988
SD
= 1.955
World Values Survey (2000): study PT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.077
SD
= 2.127
Timmermans (1997): study PT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990 N = 1185
Mean
= 7.080
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Poloski 1998 18+ aged, general public, Poloski region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 295
Mean
= 5.603
SD
= 2.583
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study PL 2010 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study PL 2005 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 2005 N = 989
Mean
= 7.022
SD
= 2.081
World Values Survey (2004): study PL 1999 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1999 N = 1095
Mean
= 6.372
SD
= 2.474
World Values Survey (2000): study PL 1996 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1996 N = 1499
Mean
= 6.426
SD
= 2.415
World Values Survey (2000): study PL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.641
SD
= 2.347
Timmermans (1997): study PL 1989 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1990 N = 938
Mean
= 6.640
World Values Survey (2004): study SI Podravska 1992 18+ aged, general public, Podravska region, Slovenia, 1992-2005 N = 152
Mean
= 7.231
SD
= 1.830
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Plovdiv 1990 18+ aged, general public, Plovdiv region, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 282
Mean
= 4.931
SD
= 2.495
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Piura 1996 18+ aged, general public, Piura region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 152
Mean
= 7.016
SD
= 2.623
World Values Survey (2004): study PH Balance -Visayas 1996 18+ aged, general public, Phillipines-Balance -Visayas region, Philippines, 1996-2001 N = 600
Mean
= 5.977
SD
= 2.592
World Values Survey (2004): study PH 2001 18+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2001 N = 1200
Mean
= 6.670
SD
= 2.537
World Values Survey (2000): study PH 1996 18+ aged, general public, Philippines, 1996 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.841
SD
= 2.345
Inglehart et al. (2008): study PE 2005 18+ aged, general public, Peru, 2005 N = 1489
Mean
= 7.037
SD
= 2.234
World Values Survey (2004): study PE 2001 18+ aged, general public, Peru, 2001 N = 1501
Mean
= 6.442
SD
= 2.394
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Pelagoniski, Bitola 1998 18+ aged, general public, Pelagoniski, Bitola region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 252
Mean
= 5.458
SD
= 2.509
World Values Survey (2004): study UY Paysandú region 1996 18+ aged, general public, Paysandú, Uruguay, 1996-2005 N = 132
Mean
= 6.568
SD
= 2.312
World Values Survey (2004): study LT Panevezys 1990 18+ aged, general public, Panevezys, Lithuania, 1990-1999 N = 226
Mean
= 4.847
SD
= 2.656
World Values Survey (2004): study PK 2001 18+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2001 N = 2000
Mean
= 4.856
SD
= 1.472
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Pais Vasco 1981 18+ aged, general public, Pais Vasco region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 283
Mean
= 7.088
SD
= 1.780
World Values Survey (2004): study CO CO Pacifica 1997 18+ aged, general public, Pacifica, Colombia, 1997-2005 N = 663
Mean
= 8.240
SD
= 1.856
World Values Survey (2004): study SI Osrednja Slovenska 1992 18+ aged, general public, Osrednja Slovenska region, Slovenia, 1992-2005 N = 233
Mean
= 7.310
SD
= 1.873
World Values Survey (2004): study NO Oslo and Akershus 1982 18+ aged, general public, Oslo and Akershus region, Norway, 1982-1996, 2005 N = 247
Mean
= 8.015
SD
= 1.350
World Values Survey (2004): study KG Osh oblast 2003 18+ aged, general public, Osh oblast region, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 219
Mean
= 7.936
SD
= 1.666
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Orrisa 1990 18+ aged, general public, Orrisa region, India, 1990-1999 N = 335
Mean
= 6.022
SD
= 2.660
World Values Survey (2004): study ET Oromiya 2005 18+ aged, general public, Oromiya region, Ethiopia, 2005 N = 561
Mean
= 5.245
SD
= 1.986
World Values Survey (2004): study CO CO Orinoquia 1997 18+ aged, general public, Orinoquia, Colombia, 1997-2005 N = 170
Mean
= 8.486
SD
= 1.723
World Values Survey (2004): study GT Oriente/Izabal/Verapaces 2005 18+ aged, general public, Oriente/Izabal/Verapaces region, Guatemala, 2005 N = 224
Mean
= 7.361
SD
= 2.049
World Values Survey (2004): study MD Orgeevskij 1996 18+ aged, general public, Orgeevskij region, Moldova, 1996-2005 N = 140
Mean
= 2.629
SD
= 1.971
World Values Survey (2004): study DZ Oran 2002 18+ aged, general public, Oran region, Algeria, 2002 N = 173
Mean
= 5.837
SD
= 2.774
World Values Survey (2004): study CA Ontario 1982 18+ aged, general public, Ontario region, Canada, 1982 N = 991
Mean
= 7.757
SD
= 1.782
World Values Survey (2004): study RO Oltenia 1993 18+ aged, general public, Oltenia region, Romania, 1993-2001 N = 156
Mean
= 4.685
SD
= 2.348
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Ohrid 1998 18+ aged, general public, Ohrid region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 228
Mean
= 5.788
SD
= 2.356
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Oeste Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Oeste Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 297
Mean
= 8.294
SD
= 2.051
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Odessa 1996 18+ aged, general public, Odessa region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 124
Mean
= 3.373
SD
= 2.260
World Values Survey (2004): study CO CO Occodente 1997 18+ aged, general public, Occodente, Colombia, 1997-2005 N = 486
Mean
= 8.605
SD
= 1.852
Davidson et al. (2013): study ZZ OECD member states 1981 18+ aged, general public, OECD member states, Multiple nations, 1981 - 2009 N = 60000
Gainer (2013): study ZZ OECD member states 18+ aged, general public, OECD member states, Multiple nations, N = 23000
Delhey & Kroll (2012): study ZZ OECD member states 2008 18+ aged, general public, OECD member states, 2008 N = 340000
Altman et al. (2016): study ZZ OECD member states 1981 18+ aged, general public, OECD member states, 1981-2008 N = 63046
Mean
= 7.490
SD
= 1.900
World Values Survey (2004): study CA Nova Scotia 1982 18+ aged, general public, Nova Scotia region, Canada, 1982 N = 397
Mean
= 7.918
SD
= 1.650
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study NO 2010 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study NO 1996 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1996 N = 1127
Mean
= 7.655
SD
= 1.873
World Values Survey (2000): study NO 1990 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 7.685
SD
= 1.766
Timmermans (1997): study NO 1990 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1990 N = 1239
Mean
= 7.680
World Values Survey (2000): study NO 1981 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1981 N = 1498
Mean
= 7.899
SD
= 1.839
World Values Survey (2004): study SK Northern Slowakia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Northern Slowakia region, Slovakia, 1990-1999 N = 353
Mean
= 6.029
SD
= 2.299
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA Northern Province/Limpopo 1990 18+ aged, general public, Northern Province/Limpopo, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 511
Mean
= 4.736
SD
= 2.532
World Values Survey (2004): study PK Rural NWFP (Northern Khyber Pakthunkhwa) 1997 18+ aged, general public, Northern Khyber region, Pakistan, 1997-2001 N = 118
Mean
= 4.796
SD
= 1.103
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study GB Northern Ireland 2010 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom, 2010 N = 1500
Halman et al. (1987): study GB Northern Ireland 1981 /1 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland, 1981 N = 312
World Values Survey (2004): study GB Northern Ireland 1999 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland region, United Kingdom, 1999 N = 1000
Mean
= 8.069
SD
= 1.705
World Values Survey (2000): study GB Northern Ireland 1990 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland region, United Kingdom, 1990 N = 500
Mean
= 7.884
SD
= 1.800
World Values Survey (2000): study GB Northern Ireland 1981 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland region, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 500
Mean
= 7.650
SD
= 1.909
Abrams (1985): study ZZ Northern Europe 1981 18+ aged, general public, Northern Europe, 1981 N = 6431
Mean
= 7.480
World Values Survey (2004): study RU RU: North-Western 1990 18+ aged, general public, North-West region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 381
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 2.569
World Values Survey (2004): study NG NG: North West 1990 18+ aged, general public, North-West region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 394
Mean
= 7.170
SD
= 2.265
World Values Survey (2004): study PK North West Frontier Province (Khyber-Pakthunkhwa) 1997 18+ aged, general public, North-West frontier province, Pakistan, 1997-2001 N = 161
Mean
= 5.428
SD
= 1.393
World Values Survey (2004): study NG NG: North 1990 18+ aged, general public, North region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 428
Mean
= 6.958
SD
= 2.774
World Values Survey (2004): study CN CN North 1990 18+ aged, general public, North hina, China, 1990-2005 N = 260
Mean
= 6.999
SD
= 2.524
World Values Survey (2004): study BR BR North West 1998 18+ aged, general public, North West region, Brazil, 1998 N = 523
Mean
= 7.469
SD
= 2.445
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study MK 2010 18+ aged, general public, North Macedonia, 2010 N = 1500
Timmermans (1997): study GB Northern Ireland 1990 18+ aged, general public, North Ireland, 1990 N = 304
Mean
= 7.880
World Values Survey (2004): study RU RU: North Caucasus 1990 18+ aged, general public, North Caucasus region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 190
Mean
= 4.091
SD
= 2.246
World Values Survey (2004): study AL AL North 1998 18+ aged, general public, North Albania, 1998 N = 431
Mean
= 4.675
SD
= 2.047
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Norte-Peru 1996 18+ aged, general public, Norte-Peru region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 394
Mean
= 6.578
SD
= 2.297
World Values Survey (2004): study CL CL Norte 1990 18+ aged, general public, Norte, Chile , 1990-2005 N = 466
Mean
= 6.943
SD
= 2.094
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Norte Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Norte Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 344
Mean
= 8.309
SD
= 2.134
World Values Survey (2004): study NG NG: North East 1990 18+ aged, general public, Nort-East region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 220
Mean
= 7.042
SD
= 2.297
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Nordrhein-Westfalen 2005 18+ aged, general public, Nordrhein-Westfalen region, Germany, 2005 N = 544
Mean
= 7.207
SD
= 1.887
World Values Survey (2004): study BR BR Nordeste, North East 1998 18+ aged, general public, Nordeste, North East region, Brazil, 1998 N = 268
Mean
= 7.114
SD
= 2.872
World Values Survey (2004): study NL Noord-Holland 1981 18+ aged, general public, Noord-Holland region, Netherlands, 1981-2005 N = 171
Mean
= 7.697
SD
= 1.283
World Values Survey (2004): study NL Noord-Brabant 1981 18+ aged, general public, Noord-Brabant region, Netherlands, 1981-2005 N = 155
Mean
= 7.679
SD
= 1.271
World Values Survey (2004): study NG 2000 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 2000 N = 2022
Mean
= 6.870
SD
= 2.320
World Values Survey (2004): study NG 1995 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1995 N = 1996
Mean
= 6.604
SD
= 2.614
Timmermans (1997): study NG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990 N = 1001
Mean
= 6.390
World Values Survey (2000): study NG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.635
SD
= 2.729
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Niedersachsen 2005 18+ aged, general public, Niedersachsen region, Germany, 2005 N = 240
Mean
= 7.211
SD
= 1.718
World Values Survey (2004): study CY Nicosia (Lefkosia) 2005 18+ aged, general public, Nicosia (Lefkosia), Cyprus, 2005 N = 413
Mean
= 7.027
SD
= 1.925
Inglehart et al. (2008): study NZ 2004 18+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 2004 N = 954
Mean
= 7.886
SD
= 1.867
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ 1998 18+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 1998 N = 1201
Mean
= 7.704
SD
= 2.028
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study NL 2010 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study NL 2006 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2006 N = 1049
Mean
= 7.755
SD
= 1.331
World Values Survey (2004): study NL 1999 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1999 N = 1003
Mean
= 7.876
SD
= 1.326
World Values Survey (2000): study NL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1990 N = 1017
Mean
= 7.834
SD
= 1.553
World Values Survey (2000): study NL 1981 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1981 N = 1221
Mean
= 7.689
SD
= 1.610
Halman et al. (1987): study NL 1981 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1981 N = 1221
World Values Survey (2004): study PH NCR (National Capital Region) of the Phillppines 1996 18+ aged, general public, National Capital Region, Philippines, 1996-2001 N = 600
Mean
= 7.355
SD
= 2.104
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Nasirria/Dhi Qar 2004 18+ aged, general public, Nasirria/Dhi Qar region, Iraq, 2004 N = 224
Mean
= 5.412
SD
= 2.399
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Najaf 2004 18+ aged, general public, Najaf region,Iraq, 2004 N = 227
Mean
= 5.137
SD
= 1.831
World Values Survey (2004): study NG NG: Middle belt 1990 18+ aged, general public, NG: Middle belt region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 252
Mean
= 6.185
SD
= 2.506
World Values Survey (2004): study NG NG: East 1990 18+ aged, general public, NG: East region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 1172
Mean
= 6.606
SD
= 2.413
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Mymensingh (Dhaka bibhag) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Mymensingh (Dhaka bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 196
Mean
= 5.272
SD
= 2.273
World Values Survey (2004): study RO Mutenia 1993 18+ aged, general public, Mutenia region, Romania, 1993-2001 N = 238
Mean
= 4.107
SD
= 2.435
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Musil/ Ninewa 2004 18+ aged, general public, Musil/ Ninewa region, Iraq, 2004 N = 178
Mean
= 2.422
SD
= 2.082
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Murcia 1981 18+ aged, general public, Murcia region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 137
Mean
= 6.414
SD
= 1.775
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA Mpumalanga 1990 18+ aged, general public, Mpumalanga, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 387
Mean
= 5.766
SD
= 2.712
Inglehart et al. (2008): study MA 2005 18+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2005 N = 1197
Mean
= 5.244
SD
= 1.801
World Values Survey (2004): study MA 2001 18+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2001 N = 2264
Mean
= 6.050
SD
= 2.556
World Values Survey (2004): study ML Mopti 2005 18+ aged, general public, Mopti region, Mali, 2005 N = 237
Mean
= 6.342
SD
= 2.352
World Values Survey (2004): study UY Montevideo region 1996 18+ aged, general public, Montevideo region, Uruguay, 1996-2005 N = 931
Mean
= 7.251
SD
= 2.126
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study ME 2010 18+ aged, general public, Montenegro, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study ME 2001 18+ aged, general public, Montenegro, 2001 N = 1060
Mean
= 5.643
SD
= 2.378
Kataria & Regner (2009): study ME 1996 18+ aged, general public, Montenegro, 1996 - 2001 N = 1300
Mean
= 5.750
SD
= 2.350
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Montana 1990 18+ aged, general public, Montana region, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 150
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 1.883
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Montana Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Montana Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 135
Mean
= 8.555
SD
= 1.660
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study MD 2010 18+ aged, general public, Moldova, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study MD 2006 18+ aged, general public, Moldova, 2006 N = 1046
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 2.262
World Values Survey (2004): study MD 2000 18+ aged, general public, Moldova, 2000 N = 1008
Mean
= 4.573
SD
= 2.316
World Values Survey (2004): study RO Moldova 1993 18+ aged, general public, Moldova region, Romania, 1993-2001 N = 229
Mean
= 4.568
SD
= 2.102
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Mogilev oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Mogilev region, Belarus, 1990 N = 257
Mean
= 4.045
SD
= 1.998
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Miranda 1996 18+ aged, general public, Miranda, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 296
Mean
= 7.280
SD
= 2.645
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Minsk oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Minsk region, Belarus, 1990 N = 313
Mean
= 4.068
SD
= 2.080
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Minsk and Minsk Oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Minsk and Minsk region, Belarus, 1990 N = 345
Mean
= 4.570
SD
= 2.268
World Values Survey (2004): study PH Mindanao 1996 18+ aged, general public, Mindanao region, Philippines, 1996-2001 N = 599
Mean
= 6.713
SD
= 2.427
World Values Survey (2004): study BR Minas Gerais 1998 18+ aged, general public, Minas Gerais region, Brazil, 1998 N = 230
Mean
= 7.655
SD
= 1.841
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW Midlands 2001 18+ aged, general public, Midlands, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 118
Mean
= 4.098
SD
= 2.952
Inglehart et al. (2008): study MX 2005 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2005 N = 1560
Mean
= 8.226
SD
= 2.052
World Values Survey (2004): study MX 2000 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2000 N = 1535
Mean
= 8.128
SD
= 2.402
World Values Survey (2004): study MX 1996 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1996 N = 2364
Mean
= 7.536
SD
= 2.161
Timmermans (1997): study MX 1990 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990 N = 1531
Mean
= 7.410
World Values Survey (2000): study MX 1990 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.405
SD
= 2.158
World Values Survey (2000): study MX 1981 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.975
SD
= 1.772
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Metropolitana Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Metropolitana Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 199
Mean
= 7.889
SD
= 2.376
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Menya 1999 18+ aged, general public, Menya region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 150
Mean
= 5.776
SD
= 2.579
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Menofia (Al Minūfīyah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Menofia (Al Minūfīyah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 125
Mean
= 5.594
SD
= 2.419
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Meknès-Tafilalet 1999 18+ aged, general public, Meknès-Tafilalet region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 231
Mean
= 5.388
SD
= 2.371
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2005 18+ aged, general public, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern region, Germany, 2005 N = 274
Mean
= 6.817
SD
= 2.186
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW Masvingo 2001 18+ aged, general public, Masvingo, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 113
Mean
= 3.685
SD
= 2.450
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW Mashonaland East 2001 18+ aged, general public, Mashonaland East, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 101
Mean
= 3.885
SD
= 2.930
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Marrakech-Tensift 1999 18+ aged, general public, Marrakech-Tensift region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 418
Mean
= 5.632
SD
= 2.364
World Values Survey (2004): study CA Manitoba 1982 18+ aged, general public, Manitoba region, Canada, 1982 N = 131
Mean
= 7.966
SD
= 1.572
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW Manicaland 2000 18+ aged, general public, Manicaland, Zimbabwe, 2000 N = 138
Mean
= 3.631
SD
= 2.631
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study MT 2010 18+ aged, general public, Malta, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study MT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Malta, 1999 N = 1001
Mean
= 8.210
SD
= 1.620
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ML 2005 18+ aged, general public, Mali, 2005 N = 1534
Mean
= 6.094
SD
= 2.593
Inglehart et al. (2008): study MY 2005 18+ aged, general public, Malaysia, 2005 N = 1201
Mean
= 6.844
SD
= 1.784
World Values Survey (2004): study SA Makkah 2003 18+ aged, general public, Makkah region, Saudi Arabia, 2003 N = 100
Mean
= 8.080
SD
= 1.988
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Madrid 1981 18+ aged, general public, Madrid region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 669
Mean
= 7.123
SD
= 1.698
World Values Survey (2004): study MK 2001 18+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 2001 N = 1055
Mean
= 5.121
SD
= 2.712
World Values Survey (2004): study MX MX: Centro occidente 1996 18+ aged, general public, MX: Centro occidente region, Mexico, 1996-2005 N = 984
Mean
= 8.212
SD
= 1.942
World Values Survey (2004): study MX MX Zona metropolitana 1996 18+ aged, general public, MX Zona metropolitana region, Mexico, 1996-2005 N = 1177
Mean
= 7.679
SD
= 1.950
World Values Survey (2004): study MX MX Sur 1996 18+ aged, general public, MX Sur region, Mexico, 1996-2005 N = 1865
Mean
= 7.686
SD
= 2.280
World Values Survey (2004): study MX MX Norte 1996 18+ aged, general public, MX Norte region, Mexico, 1996-2005 N = 2213
Mean
= 7.751
SD
= 2.258
World Values Survey (2004): study MX MX Centro/DF 1996 18+ aged, general public, MX Centro/DF region, Mexico, 1996-2005 N = 2023
Mean
= 8.012
SD
= 2.083
World Values Survey (2004): study MD MD: North 1996 18+ aged, general public, MD: North region, Moldova, 1996-2005 N = 604
Mean
= 5.140
SD
= 2.337
World Values Survey (2004): study MD MD: Center 1996 18+ aged, general public, MD: Center region, Moldova, 1996-2005 N = 842
Mean
= 5.005
SD
= 2.332
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Lviv oblast 1996 18+ aged, general public, Lviv oblast region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 137
Mean
= 4.454
SD
= 2.473
Pénard et al. (2013): study LU 2008 18+ aged, general public, Luxemburg, 2008 N = 1332
Mean
= 7.850
SD
= 2.039
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study LU 2010 18+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study LU 1999 18+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 1999 N = 1211
Mean
= 7.871
SD
= 1.852
World Values Survey (2004): study ZM Lusaka Province 2005 18+ aged, general public, Lusaka Province, Zambia, 2005 N = 326
Mean
= 6.106
SD
= 2.401
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Luhansk oblast 1996 18+ aged, general public, Luhansk oblast region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 144
Mean
= 3.425
SD
= 2.152
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Lower egypt 1999 18+ aged, general public, Lower Egypt, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 1128
Mean
= 5.464
SD
= 3.353
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Lovech 1990 18+ aged, general public, Lovech region, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 126
Mean
= 4.564
SD
= 2.292
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Lori Marz 1997 18+ aged, general public, Lori Marz region, Armenia, 1997 N = 205
Mean
= 4.092
SD
= 2.178
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Lorestan 2001 18+ aged, general public, Lorestan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 133
Mean
= 5.927
SD
= 2.355
World Values Survey (2004): study IT Lombardia 1981 18+ aged, general public, Lombardia, Italy, 1981-2005 N = 154
Mean
= 7.026
SD
= 1.655
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Llanos: Apure,Barinas,Portuguesa,Cojedes,Guárico,Yaracu 1996 18+ aged, general public, Llanos: Apure,Barinas,Portuguesa,Cojedes,Guárico,Yaracu, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 137
Mean
= 5.733
SD
= 4.047
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study LT 2010 18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study LT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1999 N = 1018
Mean
= 5.090
SD
= 2.635
World Values Survey (2000): study LT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.013
SD
= 2.346
Timmermans (1997): study LT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.010
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Lima 1996 18+ aged, general public, Lima region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 1079
Mean
= 6.600
SD
= 2.288
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Lima region 1996 18+ aged, general public, Lima region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 498
Mean
= 6.388
SD
= 2.371
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Liaoning 1990 18+ aged, general public, Liaoning, China, 1990-2005 N = 245
Mean
= 7.061
SD
= 2.439
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study LV 2010 18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study LV 1999 18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1999 N = 1013
Mean
= 5.267
SD
= 2.390
Timmermans (1997): study LV 1990 18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990 N = 903
Mean
= 5.700
World Values Survey (2000): study LV 1990 18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 5.703
SD
= 2.437
Abrams (1985): study ZZ Latin Europe 1981 18+ aged, general public, Latin Europe, 1981 N = 4850
Mean
= 6.630
World Values Survey (2004): study LV Latgale 1990 18+ aged, general public, Latgale region, Latvia, 1990 N = 105
Mean
= 4.866
SD
= 2.140
World Values Survey (2004): study UY Las Piedras 1996 18+ aged, general public, Las Piedras, Uruguay, 1996-2005 N = 113
Mean
= 7.055
SD
= 2.632
World Values Survey (2004): study NG Lagos 1990 18+ aged, general public, Lagos region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 543
Mean
= 6.394
SD
= 2.346
World Values Survey (2004): study AD Andorra la Vella 2002 18+ aged, general public, La Vella region, Andorra, 2002 N = 366
Mean
= 6.941
SD
= 1.685
World Values Survey (2004): study KG 2003 18+ aged, general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 1043
Mean
= 6.484
SD
= 2.571
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Kyowy Sang Do 1982 18+ aged, general public, Kyowy Sang Do region, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 350
Mean
= 6.659
SD
= 2.447
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Kyiv city 1996 18+ aged, general public, Kyiv oblast region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 160
Mean
= 3.507
SD
= 2.432
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Kyeongbuk/North Gyeongsang 1982 18+ aged, general public, Kyeongbuk/North Gyeongsang region, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 60
Mean
= 6.437
SD
= 1.947
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA KwaZulu/ Natal 1990 18+ aged, general public, KwaZulu/ Natal, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 1802
Mean
= 5.853
SD
= 2.624
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Kvemo Kartli 1996 18+ aged, general public, Kvemo Kartli region, Georgia, 1996 N = 341
Mean
= 4.434
SD
= 2.326
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Kut/ Wasit 2004 18+ aged, general public, Kut/ Wasit region, Iraq, 2004 N = 221
Mean
= 4.577
SD
= 1.413
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Kumanovo 1998 18+ aged, general public, Kumanovo region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 159
Mean
= 4.294
SD
= 2.687
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Crimea, Autonomy Republic, Krim 1996 18+ aged, general public, Krim region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 121
Mean
= 3.580
SD
= 2.395
World Values Survey (2004): study ML Koulikoro 2005 18+ aged, general public, Koulikoro region, Mali, 2005 N = 203
Mean
= 5.993
SD
= 2.186
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Kotayk Marz 1997 18+ aged, general public, Kotayk Marz region, Armenia, 1997 N = 174
Mean
= 5.483
SD
= 2.143
Inglehart et al. (2008): study KR 2005 18+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 2005 N = 1198
Mean
= 6.354
SD
= 1.938
World Values Survey (2000): study KR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 1990 N = 1501
Mean
= 6.685
SD
= 2.376
World Values Survey (2000): study KR 1981 18+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 1981 N = 1499
Mean
= 5.338
SD
= 2.130
World Values Survey (2004): study LT Klaipeda 1990 18+ aged, general public, Klaipeda, Lithuania, 1990-1999 N = 201
Mean
= 5.045
SD
= 2.523
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Kishorenganj (Dhaka bibhag) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Kishorenganj (Dhaka bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 141
Mean
= 6.560
SD
= 2.022
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Kirkuk 2004 18+ aged, general public, Kirkuk, Iraq, 2004 N = 233
Mean
= 4.524
SD
= 2.132
World Values Survey (2004): study JP Kinki 1981 18+ aged, general public, Kinki, Japan, 1981-2005 N = 939
Mean
= 6.789
SD
= 1.802
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Kigali Ngali 2005 18+ aged, general public, Kigali Ngali region, Rwanda, 2005 N = 146
Mean
= 5.157
SD
= 2.075
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Kibungo 2005 18+ aged, general public, Kibungo region, Rwanda, 2005 N = 133
Mean
= 4.884
SD
= 2.109
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Khorasan 2001 18+ aged, general public, Khorasan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 439
Mean
= 6.402
SD
= 2.102
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Kharkiv oblast 1996 18+ aged, general public, Kharkiv oblast region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 172
Mean
= 3.769
SD
= 2.255
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Kermanshah 2001 18+ aged, general public, Kermanshah region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 153
Mean
= 5.806
SD
= 2.462
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Kerman 2001 18+ aged, general public, Kerman region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 179
Mean
= 6.427
SD
= 2.067
World Values Survey (2004): study ML Kayes 2005 18+ aged, general public, Kayes region, Mali, 2005 N = 233
Mean
= 6.182
SD
= 2.608
World Values Survey (2004): study LT Kaunas 1990 18+ aged, general public, Kaunas, Lithuania, 1990-1999 N = 243
Mean
= 4.813
SD
= 2.595
World Values Survey (2004): study PL Katowice 1996 18+ aged, general public, Katowice region, Poland, 1996-2001 N = 103
Mean
= 7.503
SD
= 1.915
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Karbala 2004 18+ aged, general public, Karbala region, Iraq, 2004 N = 224
Mean
= 5.561
SD
= 2.130
World Values Survey (2004): study JP Kanto 1981 18+ aged, general public, Kanto, Japan, 1981-2005 N = 1823
Mean
= 6.649
SD
= 1.843
World Values Survey (2004): study UG Kampala 1989 18+ aged, general public, Kampala region, Uganda, 1989-2005 N = 144
Mean
= 5.799
SD
= 2.205
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Kakheti 1996 18+ aged, general public, Kakheti region, Georgia, 1996-2005 N = 338
Mean
= 4.198
SD
= 2.377
Inglehart et al. (2008): study JO 2005 18+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2005 N = 1196
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 2.864
World Values Survey (2004): study JO 2001 18+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2001 N = 1223
Mean
= 5.646
SD
= 2.537
World Values Survey (2004): study MY Johor 2005 18+ aged, general public, Johor region, Malaysia, 2005 N = 140
Mean
= 7.171
SD
= 1.490
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Jilin 1990 18+ aged, general public, Jilin, China, 1990-2005 N = 124
Mean
= 7.115
SD
= 2.191
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Jihoèeský kraj ( South Bohemia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Jihoèeský kraj (South Bohemia), Czech Republic, 1990-199 N = 149
Mean
= 6.460
SD
= 2.092
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravia), Czech Republic, 1990-1999 N = 435
Mean
= 6.236
SD
= 2.024
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Jiangxi 1990 18+ aged, general public, Jiangxi, China, 1990-2005 N = 157
Mean
= 6.319
SD
= 2.286
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Jiangsu 1990 18+ aged, general public, Jiangsu, China, 1990-2005 N = 200
Mean
= 6.741
SD
= 2.542
World Values Survey (2004): study IL Jerusalem 2001 18+ aged, general public, Jerusalem, Israel, 2001 N = 141
Mean
= 7.419
SD
= 1.967
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Jeonnam/South Jeolia 1982 18+ aged, general public, Jeonnam/South Jeolia, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 60
Mean
= 6.401
SD
= 1.819
Inglehart et al. (2008): study JP 2005 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 2005 N = 1096
Mean
= 6.993
SD
= 1.807
World Values Survey (2004): study JP 2000 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 2000 N = 1362
Mean
= 6.480
SD
= 1.970
World Values Survey (2000): study JP 1995 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1995 N = 1498
Mean
= 6.721
SD
= 1.831
World Values Survey (2000): study JP 1990 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 6.526
SD
= 1.748
Timmermans (1997): study JP 1990 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990 N = 1011
Mean
= 6.520
World Values Survey (2000): study JP 1981 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.594
SD
= 1.878
World Values Survey (2004): study KG Jalal-Abad oblast 2003 18+ aged, general public, Jalal-Abad oblast, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 147
Mean
= 7.267
SD
= 2.350
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study IT 2010 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study IT 2005 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2005 N = 1012
Mean
= 6.885
SD
= 1.742
World Values Survey (2004): study IT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1999 N = 2000
Mean
= 7.168
SD
= 2.113
World Values Survey (2000): study IT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 7.300
SD
= 2.064
World Values Survey (2000): study IT 1981 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.687
SD
= 2.446
Halman et al. (1987): study IT 1981 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1981 N = 1348
World Values Survey (2004): study CH Switserland Italian 1989 18+ aged, general public, Italian speaking regions, Switzerland, 1989-2005 N = 196
Mean
= 7.754
SD
= 1.872
World Values Survey (2004): study TR Istanbul 1990 18+ aged, general public, Istanbul region, Turkey, 1990-2005 N = 259
Mean
= 7.482
SD
= 2.293
World Values Survey (2004): study KG Issyk-Kol 2003 18+ aged, general public, Issyk-Kol region, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 124
Mean
= 5.871
SD
= 2.568
World Values Survey (2004): study IL 2001 18+ aged, general public, Israel, 2001 N = 1199
Mean
= 7.021
SD
= 2.179
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study IE 2010 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study IE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1999 N = 1012
Mean
= 8.163
SD
= 1.809
Timmermans (1997): study IE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.880
World Values Survey (2000): study IE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990 N = 1481
Mean
= 7.875
SD
= 1.924
Healy (2005): study IE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981-2002 N = 988
Mean
= 8.150
SD
= 1.857
World Values Survey (2000): study IE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981 N = 1207
Mean
= 7.706
SD
= 1.894
World Values Survey (2004): study JO Irbid 2001 18+ aged, general public, Irbid, Jordan, 2001-2005 N = 182
Mean
= 5.294
SD
= 2.832
Inglehart et al. (2008): study IQ 2005 18+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2005 N = 2701
Mean
= 4.461
SD
= 2.417
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ 2004 18+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2004 N = 2325
Mean
= 5.227
SD
= 2.403
Inglehart et al. (2008): study IR 2005 18+ aged, general public, Iran, 2005 N = 2667
Mean
= 6.424
SD
= 2.403
World Values Survey (2004): study IR 2000 18+ aged, general public, Iran, 2000 N = 2532
Mean
= 6.375
SD
= 2.414
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ID 2005 18+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2005 N = 2015
Mean
= 6.908
SD
= 2.157
World Values Survey (2004): study ID 2001 18+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2001 N = 1004
Mean
= 6.954
SD
= 2.063
World Values Survey (2004): study IN 1996 18+ aged, general public, India, 1996 N = 2040
Mean
= 6.534
SD
= 2.636
Timmermans (1997): study IN 1990 18+ aged, general public, India, 1990 N = 2500
Mean
= 6.220
World Values Survey (2000): study IN 1990 18+ aged, general public, India, 1990 N = 1509
Mean
= 6.258
SD
= 2.421
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Incheon 1982 18+ aged, general public, Incheon region, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 60
Mean
= 6.346
SD
= 1.778
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Imereti/Racha 1996 18+ aged, general public, Imereti/Racha region, Georgia, 1996-2005 N = 263
Mean
= 5.717
SD
= 2.107
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Imereti 1996 18+ aged, general public, Imereti region, Georgia, 1996-2005 N = 881
Mean
= 4.892
SD
= 2.702
World Values Survey (2004): study EE Ida-Virumaa (Isa-Virumaa, Kirde) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Ida-Virumaa (Isa-Virumaa) region, Estonia, 1990-1999 N = 148
Mean
= 5.011
SD
= 2.366
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study IS 2010 18+ aged, general public, Iceland, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart (2004): study IS 1999 18+ aged, general public, Iceland, 1999 N = 968
Mean
= 8.050
SD
= 1.590
World Values Survey (2000): study IS 1990 18+ aged, general public, Iceland, 1990 N = 1502
Mean
= 8.022
SD
= 1.596
World Values Survey (2000): study IS 1981 18+ aged, general public, Iceland, 1981 N = 1501
Mean
= 8.092
SD
= 1.618
Timmermans (1997): study IS 1990 18+ aged, general public, Iceland 1990 N = 702
Mean
= 8.030
World Values Survey (2004): study IR IR West Azerbayjan 2001 18+ aged, general public, IR West Azerbayjan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 215
Mean
= 6.692
SD
= 2.505
World Values Survey (2004): study IR IR East Azerbayjan 2001 18+ aged, general public, IR East Azerbayjan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 327
Mean
= 6.650
SD
= 2.583
World Values Survey (2004): study FI Hämeen (in Southern Finland, in Päijänne Tavastland) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hämeen (in Southern Finland, in Päijänne Tavastland) region, Finland, 1990-2005 N = 141
Mean
= 7.753
SD
= 1.270
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study HU 2010 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study HU 1999 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1999 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.696
SD
= 2.440
World Values Survey (2004): study HU 1998 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1998 N = 650
Mean
= 5.859
SD
= 2.273
World Values Survey (2000): study HU 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 6.027
SD
= 2.451
Timmermans (1997): study HU 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990 N = 999
Mean
= 6.030
Easterlin (2014a): study HU 1982 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1982-2005 N = 200000
Mean
= 6.300
World Values Survey (2000): study HU 1981 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.927
SD
= 2.425
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Hubei 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hubei, China, 1990-2005 N = 281
Mean
= 7.375
SD
= 2.085
Inglehart et al. (2008): study HK 2005 18+ aged, general public, Hong Kong, 2005 N = 1252
Mean
= 6.408
SD
= 1.928
World Values Survey (2004): study JP Hokkaido&Tohoku 1981 18+ aged, general public, Hokkaido/Tohoku, Japan, 1981-2005 N = 736
Mean
= 6.463
SD
= 1.929
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Hessen 2005 18+ aged, general public, Hessen region, Germany, 2005 N = 155
Mean
= 7.118
SD
= 1.899
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Henan 1990 18+ aged, general public, Henan, China, 1990-2005 N = 175
Mean
= 6.629
SD
= 2.423
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Heilongjiang 1990 18+ aged, general public, Heilongjiang, China, 1990-2005 N = 150
Mean
= 6.717
SD
= 2.580
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Hebei 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hebei, China, 1990-2005 N = 140
Mean
= 6.412
SD
= 2.306
World Values Survey (2004): study BF BF Hauts-Bassins 2005 18+ aged, general public, Hauts-Bassins region, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 158
Mean
= 6.490
SD
= 2.666
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Haryana 1990 18+ aged, general public, Haryana region, India, 1990-1999 N = 127
Mean
= 7.687
SD
= 2.458
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW Harare 2001 18+ aged, general public, Harare, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 161
Mean
= 3.807
SD
= 2.773
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Hamadan 2001 18+ aged, general public, Hamadan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 150
Mean
= 6.303
SD
= 2.455
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Haskovo 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hakovo region, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 216
Mean
= 5.286
SD
= 2.418
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Gujarat 1990 18+ aged, general public, Gujarat region, India, 1990-1999 N = 422
Mean
= 6.489
SD
= 2.640
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Guizhou 1990 18+ aged, general public, Guizhou, China, 1990-2005 N = 137
Mean
= 6.036
SD
= 2.562
World Values Survey (2004): study GT Guatemala 2005 18+ aged, general public, Guatemala region, Guatemala, 2005 N = 310
Mean
= 7.940
SD
= 2.008
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Guangdong 1990 18+ aged, general public, Guangdong, China, 1990-2005 N = 157
Mean
= 5.665
SD
= 2.428
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Grodno oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Grodno region, Belarus, 1990 N = 246
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 2.339
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study GR 2010 18+ aged, general public, Greece, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study GR 1999 18+ aged, general public, Greece, 1999 N = 1142
Mean
= 6.670
SD
= 2.191
World Values Survey (2004): study GB Greater London 1981 18+ aged, general public, Greater London region, United Kingdom, 1981-2002 N = 183
Mean
= 7.463
SD
= 1.692
World Values Survey (2004): study GH Greater Accra 2005 18+ aged, general public, Greater Accra region, Ghana, 2005 N = 264
Mean
= 6.237
SD
= 2.273
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study GB Great Britain 2010 18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, United Kingdom, 2010 N = 1500
Harding (1985): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1983 N = 1231
Mean
= 7.700
Halman et al. (1987): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1981 N = 1231
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Grand Casablanca 1999 18+ aged, general public, Grand Casablanca region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 636
Mean
= 5.813
SD
= 2.226
World Values Survey (2004): study AR Gran Buenos Aires 1981 18+ aged, general public, Gran Buenos Aires region, Argentina, 1981 N = 1315
Mean
= 7.224
SD
= 2.140
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Gomel oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Gomel region, Belarus, 1990 N = 322
Mean
= 4.695
SD
= 2.379
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Golestan 2001 18+ aged, general public, Golestan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 135
Mean
= 6.922
SD
= 2.292
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Giza (Al Jīzah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Giza (Al Jīzah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 275
Mean
= 5.713
SD
= 2.886
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Gitarama 2005 18+ aged, general public, Gitarama region, Rwanda, 2005 N = 160
Mean
= 5.030
SD
= 2.110
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Gisenyi 2005 18+ aged, general public, Gisenyi region, Rwanda, 2005 N = 176
Mean
= 4.636
SD
= 1.905
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Gilan 2001 18+ aged, general public, Gilan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 193
Mean
= 6.379
SD
= 2.187
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Ghegharkunic Marz 1997 18+ aged, general public, Ghegharkunic Marz region, Armenia, 1997 N = 147
Mean
= 3.572
SD
= 2.200
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Gharbia (Al Gharbīyah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Gharbia (Al Gharbīyah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 175
Mean
= 4.347
SD
= 2.775
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Gharb-Chrarda 1999 18+ aged, general public, Gharb-Chrarda region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 234
Mean
= 5.482
SD
= 2.199
Inglehart et al. (2008): study GH 2005 18+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2005 N = 1534
Mean
= 6.122
SD
= 2.629
World Values Survey (2004): study XZ Germany West 1981 18+ aged, general public, Germany-West (former), 1981 N = 1305
Mean
= 7.175
SD
= 1.919
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study DE 2010 18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study DE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1999 N = 2036
Mean
= 7.609
SD
= 1.790
World Values Survey (2004): study DE 1997 18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1997 N = 1017
Mean
= 7.609
SD
= 1.790
World Values Survey (2004): study CH Switserland German 1989 18+ aged, general public, German speaking regions, Switzerland, 1989-2005 N = 630
Mean
= 8.129
SD
= 1.545
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study GE 2010 18+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study GE 1996 18+ aged, general public, Georgia, 1996 N = 2008
Mean
= 4.677
SD
= 2.606
World Values Survey (2004): study NL Gelderland 1981 18+ aged, general public, Gelderland region, Netherlands, 1981-2005 N = 116
Mean
= 7.881
SD
= 1.227
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA Gauteng 1990 18+ aged, general public, Gauteng, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 2485
Mean
= 5.825
SD
= 2.722
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Galicia 1981 18+ aged, general public, Galicia region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 367
Mean
= 7.101
SD
= 2.041
World Values Survey (2004): study GT GT Sur 2005 18+ aged, general public, GT Sur region, Guatemala, 2005 N = 130
Mean
= 8.816
SD
= 1.904
World Values Survey (2004): study GH GH Western 2005 18+ aged, general public, GH Western region, Ghana, 2005 N = 150
Mean
= 6.800
SD
= 2.606
World Values Survey (2004): study GH GH Northern 2005 18+ aged, general public, GH Northern region, Ghana, 2005 N = 134
Mean
= 4.841
SD
= 2.430
World Values Survey (2004): study GH GH Eastern 2005 18+ aged, general public, GH Eastern region, Ghana, 2005 N = 165
Mean
= 6.758
SD
= 2.269
World Values Survey (2004): study GH GH Central 2005 18+ aged, general public, GH Central region, Ghana, 2002 N = 132
Mean
= 5.649
SD
= 3.205
World Values Survey (2004): study GB GB West Midlands 1981 18+ aged, general public, GB West Midlands region, United Kingdom, 1981-2005 N = 221
Mean
= 7.376
SD
= 2.004
World Values Survey (2004): study GB GB South-West 1981 18+ aged, general public, GB South-West region, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 215
Mean
= 7.601
SD
= 1.703
World Values Survey (2004): study GB GB South-East 1981 18+ aged, general public, GB South-East region, United Kingdom, 1981-2005 N = 416
Mean
= 7.467
SD
= 1.812
World Values Survey (2004): study GB GB North-West 1981 18+ aged, general public, GB North-West region, United Kingdom, 1981-2005 N = 185
Mean
= 7.766
SD
= 1.791
World Values Survey (2004): study GB GB North 1981 18+ aged, general public, GB North region, United Kingdom, 1981-2005 N = 158
Mean
= 7.804
SD
= 1.759
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Fès-Boulemane 1999 18+ aged, general public, Fès-Boulemane region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 202
Mean
= 5.357
SD
= 2.160
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Fujian 1990 18+ aged, general public, Fujian, China, 1990-2005 N = 196
Mean
= 6.621
SD
= 2.069
World Values Survey (2004): study CH Switserland French 1989 18+ aged, general public, French speaking regions, Switzerland, 1989-2005 N = 406
Mean
= 7.689
SD
= 1.540
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study FR 2010 18+ aged, general public, France, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study FR 2006 18+ aged, general public, France, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.911
SD
= 1.902
World Values Survey (2004): study FR 1999 18+ aged, general public, France, 1999 N = 1615
Mean
= 6.928
SD
= 2.027
Timmermans (1997): study FR 1990 18+ aged, general public, France, 1990 N = 1002
Mean
= 6.780
World Values Survey (2000): study FR 1990 18+ aged, general public, France, 1990 N = 1501
Mean
= 6.783
SD
= 1.975
World Values Survey (2000): study FR 1981 18+ aged, general public, France, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.701
SD
= 2.100
Halman et al. (1987): study FR 1981 18+ aged, general public, France, 1981 N = 1200
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study FI 2010 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study FI 2005 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2005 N = 1014
Mean
= 7.838
SD
= 1.746
World Values Survey (2004): study FI 2000 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2000 N = 1038
Mean
= 7.872
SD
= 1.671
Kotakorpi & Laamanen (2010): study FI 2000 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2000 N = 1000
World Values Survey (2000): study FI 1996 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1996 N = 987
Mean
= 7.779
SD
= 1.542
Fleche et al. (2011): study FI 1994 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1994-2008 N = 1743
World Values Survey (2004): study FI Uusimaa (region around Helsinki) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990-2005 N = 258
Mean
= 7.840
SD
= 1.843
World Values Survey (2000): study FI 1990 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990 N = 1505
Mean
= 7.680
SD
= 1.881
Timmermans (1997): study FI 1990 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990 N = 588
Mean
= 7.680
World Values Survey (2000): study FI 1981 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1981 N = 1505
Mean
= 7.906
SD
= 1.407
World Values Survey (2004): study RU RU: Far East 1990 18+ aged, general public, Far East region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 240
Mean
= 4.995
SD
= 2.617
World Values Survey (2004): study CY Famagusta (Ammochostos) 2005 18+ aged, general public, Famagusta (Ammochostos), Cyprus, 2005 N = 167
Mean
= 7.041
SD
= 1.825
World Values Survey (2004): study FR FR Ouest, West 1981 18+ aged, general public, FR Ouest, West region, France, 1981-2005 N = 135
Mean
= 6.688
SD
= 1.902
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Extremadura 1981 18+ aged, general public, Extremadura region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 131
Mean
= 7.045
SD
= 1.650
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ET 2005 18+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2005 N = 1490
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 2.010
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study EE 2010 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study EE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1999 N = 1005
Mean
= 5.895
SD
= 2.189
World Values Survey (2000): study EE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990 N = 1008
Mean
= 6.000
SD
= 2.132
Timmermans (1997): study EE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990 N = 1008
Mean
= 6.000
Fleche et al. (2011): study EE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1981-2008 N = 816
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Este Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Este Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 340
Mean
= 8.116
SD
= 2.253
World Values Survey (2004): study AD Escaldes-Engordany 2005 18+ aged, general public, Escaldes-Engordany region, Andorra, 2005 N = 215
Mean
= 7.060
SD
= 1.711
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Erevan 1997 18+ aged, general public, Erevan region, Armenia, 1997 N = 664
Mean
= 4.102
SD
= 2.493
World Values Survey (2004): study AD Encamp 2005 18+ aged, general public, Encamp region, Andorra, 2005 N = 154
Mean
= 7.302
SD
= 1.484
World Values Survey (2004): study SV 1999 18+ aged, general public, El Salvador, 1999 N = 1254
Mean
= 7.500
SD
= 2.430
Inglehart et al. (2008): study EG 2006 18+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2006 N = 3050
Mean
= 5.742
SD
= 2.690
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Ebril 2004 18+ aged, general public, Ebril, Iraq, 2004 N = 258
Mean
= 5.570
SD
= 1.665
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Eastern Ukraine 1996 18+ aged, general public, Eastern Ukraine region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 332
Mean
= 5.165
SD
= 2.281
World Values Survey (2004): study SK Eastern Slovakia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Eastern Slovakia region, Slovakia, 1990-2005 N = 424
Mean
= 6.147
SD
= 2.318
World Values Survey (2004): study RU Eastern Siberia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Eastern Siberia region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 88
Mean
= 4.715
SD
= 2.434
Rodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ Eastern Europe 1999 18+ aged, general public, Eastern Europe, Multiple nations, 1999 - 2008 N = 12500
World Values Survey (2004): study GB East-Midlands 1981 18+ aged, general public, East-Midlands region, United Kingdom, 1981-2005 N = 157
Mean
= 7.663
SD
= 1.638
Wohlfahrtssurvey (2000): study DE East Germany 1999 18+ aged, general public, East-Germany, Germany, 1999 N = 891
Mean
= 7.530
SD
= 2.030
World Values Survey (2000): study DE East Germany 1997 18+ aged, general public, East-Germany, Germany, 1997 N = 1503
Mean
= 6.636
SD
= 1.942
World Values Survey (2000): study DE East Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, East-Germany, Germany, 1990 N = 1336
Mean
= 6.723
SD
= 1.962
World Values Survey (2004): study ID East Java (Jawa Timur) 2001 18+ aged, general public, East Java (Jawa Timur) region, Indonesia, 2001-2005 N = 471
Mean
= 6.841
SD
= 2.210
World Values Survey (2004): study HU East Hungary 1982 18+ aged, general public, East Hungary region, Hungary, 1982-1999 N = 119
Mean
= 6.041
SD
= 2.489
Timmermans (1997): study DE East Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990 N = 1336
Mean
= 6.720
World Values Survey (2004): study CN CN East 1990 18+ aged, general public, East China, China, 1990-2005 N = 314
Mean
= 6.479
SD
= 2.323
Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /2 18+ aged, general public, EU 10, 1981 N = 12464
Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /1 18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981 N = 12464
World Values Survey (2004): study EG EG: Canal zone 1999 18+ aged, general public, EG: Canal zone region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 174
Mean
= 5.016
SD
= 3.358
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Doukkla - Abda 1999 18+ aged, general public, Doukkla - Abda region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 228
Mean
= 5.386
SD
= 2.005
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Donetsk oblast 1996 18+ aged, general public, Donetsk oblast region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 260
Mean
= 4.141
SD
= 2.413
World Values Survey (2004): study DO 1996 18+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, 1996 N = 417
Mean
= 7.128
SD
= 2.462
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Dnipropetrovsk oblast 1996 18+ aged, general public, Dnipropetrovsk oblast region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 186
Mean
= 3.092
SD
= 2.168
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Diwania/Qadisiyah 2004 18+ aged, general public, Diwania/Qadisiyah region, Iraq, 2004 N = 226
Mean
= 5.530
SD
= 2.137
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study DK 2010 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study DK 1999 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1999 N = 1023
Mean
= 8.240
SD
= 1.820
World Values Survey (2000): study DK 1990 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990 N = 1496
Mean
= 8.162
SD
= 1.893
Timmermans (1997): study DK 1990 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990 N = 1030
Mean
= 8.155
SD
= 1.903
Fleche et al. (2011): study DK 1981 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981-2008 N = 767
World Values Survey (2000): study DK 1981 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981 N = 1499
Mean
= 8.195
SD
= 1.742
Halman et al. (1987): study DK 1981 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981 N = 1182
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Delhi 1990 18+ aged, general public, Delhi region, India, 1990-1999 N = 150
Mean
= 6.857
SD
= 2.557
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Dakahlia (Ad Daqahlīyah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Dakahlia (Ad Daqahlīyah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 250
Mean
= 5.706
SD
= 2.768
World Values Survey (2004): study DO DO Distrito Nacional 1996 18+ aged, general public, DO Distrito Nacional region, Dominican Republic, 1996 N = 272
Mean
= 7.169
SD
= 2.349
Timmermans (1997): study CZ 1990 18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990 N = 1396
Mean
= 6.300
World Values Survey (2000): study XZ Czechoslovakia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia (former), 1990 N = 1497
Mean
= 6.372
SD
= 2.132
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study CZ 2010 18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ 1998 18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1998 N = 1147
Mean
= 7.062
SD
= 1.946
Fleche et al. (2011): study CZ 1981 18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1981-2008 N = 1603
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study CY 2010 18+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CY 2005 18+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2005 N = 1050
Mean
= 7.371
SD
= 1.980
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Cusco 1996 18+ aged, general public, Cusco region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 123
Mean
= 6.494
SD
= 2.311
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study HR 2010 18+ aged, general public, Croatia, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study HR 1999 18+ aged, general public, Croatia, 1999 N = 1003
Mean
= 6.463
SD
= 2.332
World Values Survey (2004): study ZM Copperbelt Province 2005 18+ aged, general public, Copperbelt Province, Zambia, 2005 N = 275
Mean
= 6.016
SD
= 2.872
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CO 2005 18+ aged, general public, Colombia, 2005 N = 3025
Mean
= 8.299
SD
= 1.947
World Values Survey (2004): study CO 1997 18+ aged, general public, Colombia, 1997 N = 3029
Mean
= 8.189
SD
= 2.275
World Values Survey (2004): study RU Volgo-Vyatki 1990 18+ aged, general public, City of Volgo-Vyatki, Russia, 1990 N = 115
Mean
= 4.230
SD
= 2.427
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Sofia 2005 18+ aged, general public, City of Sofia, Bulgaria, 2005 N = 268
Mean
= 5.165
SD
= 2.111
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Seoul 1982 18+ aged, general public, City of Seoul, Korea,(South), 1982 N = 603
Mean
= 6.709
SD
= 2.176
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Praha (Prague) 1990 18+ aged, general public, City of Prague, Czech Republic, 1990 N = 209
Mean
= 6.770
SD
= 1.879
World Values Survey (2004): study RU Moscow 1990 18+ aged, general public, City of Moscow, Russia, 1990 N = 185
Mean
= 6.945
SD
= 2.088
World Values Survey (2004): study AR Mendosa 1981 18+ aged, general public, City of Mendosa, Argentina, 1981 N = 206
Mean
= 6.928
SD
= 2.669
World Values Survey (2004): study MD Kishinev (Chisinau) 1996 18+ aged, general public, City of Kishinev (Chisinau), Moldova, 1996 N = 361
Mean
= 4.900
SD
= 2.413
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Kigali 2005 18+ aged, general public, City of Kigali, Rwanda, 2005 N = 111
Mean
= 5.851
SD
= 2.029
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA Johannesburg 1990 18+ aged, general public, City of Johannesburg, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 213
Mean
= 7.311
SD
= 2.070
World Values Survey (2004): study SA Jeddah 2003 18+ aged, general public, City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2003 N = 300
Mean
= 7.306
SD
= 2.462
World Values Survey (2004): study ID Jakarta 2001 18+ aged, general public, City of Jakarta, Indonesia, 2001 N = 197
Mean
= 6.781
SD
= 1.847
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA Cape Town 1990 18+ aged, general public, City of Cape Town, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 105
Mean
= 7.823
SD
= 1.630
World Values Survey (2004): study AR Buenos Aires 1981 18+ aged, general public, City of Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1981 N = 1288
Mean
= 6.787
SD
= 2.082
World Values Survey (2004): study RO Bucuresti 1993 18+ aged, general public, City of Bucuresti, Romania, 1993 N = 301
World Values Survey (2004): study KG Bishkek 2003 18+ aged, general public, City of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 260
Mean
= 5.763
SD
= 2.611
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Chunra Do 1982 18+ aged, general public, Chunra Do region, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 262
Mean
= 6.693
SD
= 2.382
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Chungchong Do 1982 18+ aged, general public, Chungchong Do region, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 172
Mean
= 6.444
SD
= 2.441
World Values Survey (2004): study JP Chugoku&Shikoku 1981 18+ aged, general public, Chugoku, Shikoku, Japan, 1981-2005 N = 1130
Mean
= 6.637
SD
= 1.925
World Values Survey (2004): study JP Chubu&Hokuriku 1981 18+ aged, general public, Chubu, Hokuriku, Japan, 1981-2005 N = 909
Mean
= 6.717
SD
= 1.826
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CN 2007 18+ aged, general public, China, 2007 N = 2015
Mean
= 6.757
SD
= 2.403
World Values Survey (2004): study CN 2001 18+ aged, general public, China, 2001 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.530
SD
= 2.470
World Values Survey (2000): study CN 1995 18+ aged, general public, China, 1995 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.796
SD
= 2.445
World Values Survey (2000): study CN 1990 18+ aged, general public, China, 1990 N = 1504
Mean
= 7.134
SD
= 2.170
Timmermans (1997): study CL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.550
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CL 2005 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 2005 N = 992
Mean
= 7.159
SD
= 2.035
World Values Survey (2004): study CL 2000 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 2000 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.121
SD
= 2.155
World Values Survey (2000): study CL 1996 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 1996 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.908
SD
= 2.136
World Values Survey (2000): study CL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.552
SD
= 2.215
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Chaouia-Ouardigha 1999 18+ aged, general public, Chaouia-Ouardigha region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 125
Mean
= 5.341
SD
= 2.058
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Centro-Peru 1996 18+ aged, general public, Centro-Peru region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 204
Mean
= 6.512
SD
= 2.347
World Values Survey (2004): study CL CL Centro 1990 18+ aged, general public, Centro, Chile, 1990-2005 N = 448
Mean
= 7.290
SD
= 2.163
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Centro Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Centro Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 315
Mean
= 8.299
SD
= 2.136
World Values Survey (2004): study CO Centro Oriental 1997 18+ aged, general public, Centro Oriental region, Colombia, 1997 N = 1759
Mean
= 8.290
SD
= 1.804
World Values Survey (2004): study BF BF Centre-Ouest 2005 18+ aged, general public, Centre-Ouest region, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 127
Mean
= 5.419
SD
= 1.904
World Values Survey (2004): study BF BF Centre-Est 2005 18+ aged, general public, Centre-Est region, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 141
Mean
= 5.362
SD
= 1.439
World Values Survey (2004): study BF BF Centre 2005 18+ aged, general public, Centre region, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 148
Mean
= 5.396
SD
= 1.899
World Values Survey (2004): study BF BF Centre Nord 2005 18+ aged, general public, Centre Nord region, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 128
Mean
= 6.036
SD
= 2.388
World Values Survey (2004): study RU RU Central 1990 18+ aged, general public, Central region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 761
Mean
= 5.206
SD
= 2.624
World Values Survey (2004): study RS Central West Serbia 1996 18+ aged, general public, Central West Serbia region, Serbia, 1996-2005 N = 300
Mean
= 6.047
SD
= 2.083
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Central Ukraine 1996 18+ aged, general public, Central Ukraine region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 297
Mean
= 5.492
SD
= 2.379
World Values Survey (2004): study SK Central Slowakia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Central Slowakia region, Slovakia, 1990-2005 N = 483
Mean
= 6.099
SD
= 2.088
World Values Survey (2004): study RS Central Serbia 1996 18+ aged, general public, Central Serbia region, Serbia, 1996-2005 N = 593
Mean
= 5.674
SD
= 2.394
World Values Survey (2004): study ID Central Java(Jawa Tengah) 2001 18+ aged, general public, Central Java(Jawa Tengah) region, Indonesia, 2001-2005 N = 626
Mean
= 7.005
SD
= 1.960
World Values Survey (2004): study CN CN Center 1990 18+ aged, general public, Central China, China, 1990-2005 N = 134
Mean
= 7.095
SD
= 2.488
World Values Survey (2004): study RU Central Black Earth 1990 18+ aged, general public, Central Black Earth region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 121
Mean
= 4.513
SD
= 2.304
World Values Survey (2004): study AL AL Center 1998 18+ aged, general public, Center Albania, 1998 N = 492
Mean
= 5.348
SD
= 2.129
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Cataluna 1981 18+ aged, general public, Cataluna region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 655
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Castilla-Mancha 1981 18+ aged, general public, Castilla-Mancha region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 236
Mean
= 7.130
SD
= 2.136
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Castilla Leon 1981 18+ aged, general public, Castilla Leon region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 266
Mean
= 7.286
SD
= 1.655
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Carabobo, Lara 1996 18+ aged, general public, Carabobo, Lara, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 237
Mean
= 7.755
SD
= 2.545
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ Canterbury 1998 18+ aged, general public, Canterbury, New Zealand, 1998 N = 260
Mean
= 8.190
SD
= 1.670
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Canarias 1981 18+ aged, general public, Canarias region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 348
Mean
= 6.571
SD
= 1.833
Fleche et al. (2011): study CA 1994 18+ aged, general public, Canada,1994-2008 N = 3358
Helliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003 N = 1862
World Values Survey (2004): study CA 2000 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2000 N = 1931
Mean
= 7.797
SD
= 1.860
Timmermans (1997): study CA 1990 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990 N = 1730
Mean
= 7.890
World Values Survey (2000): study CA 1990 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990 N = 1501
Mean
= 7.885
SD
= 1.738
World Values Survey (2000): study CA 1982 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1982 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.852
SD
= 1.734
World Values Survey (2004): study US California 1982 18+ aged, general public, California region, United States, 1982-2005 N = 439
Mean
= 7.345
SD
= 1.933
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Cairo (Al Qāhirah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Cairo (Al Qāhirah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 776
Mean
= 5.707
SD
= 2.932
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Byumba 2005 18+ aged, general public, Byumba, Rwanda, 2005 N = 128
Mean
= 5.191
SD
= 2.411
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Butare 2005 18+ aged, general public, Butare region, Rwanda, 2005 N = 132
Mean
= 4.582
SD
= 1.968
Inglehart et al. (2008): study BF 2005 18+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 1534
Mean
= 5.571
SD
= 2.181
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Burgaska, Bourgas, Burgas 1990 18+ aged, general public, Burgaska, Bourgas region, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 203
Mean
= 4.684
SD
= 2.714
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study BG 2010 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2010 N = 1500
Inglehart et al. (2008): study BG 2006 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2006 N = 1001
Mean
= 5.218
SD
= 2.274
World Values Survey (2004): study BG 1997 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1997 N = 1072
Mean
= 5.338
SD
= 2.686
World Values Survey (2000): study BG 1997 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1997 N = 1501
Mean
= 4.658
SD
= 2.401
World Values Survey (2000): study BG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 5.035
SD
= 2.293
Timmermans (1997): study BG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 1034
Mean
= 5.030
World Values Survey (2004): study HU Budapest 1982 18+ aged, general public, Budapest region, Hungary, 1982-1999 N = 137
Mean
= 5.948
SD
= 2.233
World Values Survey (2004): study GH Brong Ahafo 2005 18+ aged, general public, Brong Ahafo region, Ghana, 2002 N = 144
Mean
= 7.166
SD
= 2.264
World Values Survey (2004): study CA British Columbia 1982 18+ aged, general public, British Columbia region, Canada, 1982 N = 430
Mean
= 7.755
SD
= 1.784
Timmermans (1997): study GB 1990 18+ aged, general public, Britain, 1990 N = 1484
Mean
= 7.470
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Brest oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Brest region, Belarus, 1990 N = 316
Mean
= 4.024
SD
= 1.776
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Bregalnicki 1998 18+ aged, general public, Bregalnicki region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 304
Mean
= 4.906
SD
= 2.365
Inglehart et al. (2008): study BR 2006 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 2006 N = 1495
Mean
= 7.651
SD
= 2.097
World Values Survey (2004): study BR 1998 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 1998 N = 1471
Mean
= 7.271
SD
= 2.513
World Values Survey (2004): study BR 1996 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 1996 N = 1149
Mean
= 7.152
SD
= 2.677
World Values Survey (2000): study BR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 1990 N = 1502
Mean
= 7.389
SD
= 2.388
World Values Survey (2004): study SK Bratislavský kraj 1990 18+ aged, general public, Bratislavský kraj region, Slovakia, 1990-2005 N = 138
Mean
= 6.152
SD
= 2.263
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Brandenburg 2005 18+ aged, general public, Brandenburg, Germany, 1981-2005 N = 370
Mean
= 6.813
SD
= 2.011
World Values Survey (2004): study BF Boucle du Mouhoun 2005 18+ aged, general public, Boucle du Mouhoun region, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 150
Mean
= 4.999
SD
= 1.680
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study BA 2010 18+ aged, general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study BA 2001 18+ aged, general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2001 N = 1200
Mean
= 5.770
SD
= 2.383
World Values Survey (2000): study BA 1997 18+ aged, general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 1997 N = 1500
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 2.213
World Values Survey (2004): study BA BA Bosnia Federation 1998 18+ aged, general public, Bosnia Federation region, Bosnia Herzegovina, 1998 N = 1598
Mean
= 5.932
SD
= 2.219
World Values Survey (2004): study CO CO Bogotá 1997 18+ aged, general public, Bogotá, Colombia, 1997-2005 N = 688
Mean
= 8.251
SD
= 1.711
World Values Survey (2004): study CH Bern 1989 18+ aged, general public, Bern, Switzerland, 1989-2005 N = 138
Mean
= 8.738
SD
= 1.622
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Berlin 2005 18+ aged, general public, Berlin, Germany, 1981-2005 N = 101
Mean
= 7.362
SD
= 1.467
World Values Survey (2004): study ID Bengkulu 2001 18+ aged, general public, Bengkulu region, Indonesia, 2001-2005 N = 199
Mean
= 6.759
SD
= 1.957
World Values Survey (2004): study RS Beograd area (Belgrad) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Belgrad region, Serbia, 1996-2005 N = 276
Mean
= 6.042
SD
= 2.322
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study BE 2010 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study BE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1999 N = 1912
Mean
= 7.560
SD
= 2.060
World Values Survey (2000): study BE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990 N = 1502
Mean
= 7.654
SD
= 1.886
Fleche et al. (2011): study BE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981-2008 N = 1385
Halman et al. (1987): study BE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981 N = 1145
World Values Survey (2000): study BE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.394
SD
= 1.777
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study BY 2010 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study BY 2000 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 2000 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.810
SD
= 2.210
World Values Survey (2004): study BY 1996 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1996 N = 1506
Mean
= 4.348
SD
= 2.190
World Values Survey (2000): study BY 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990 N = 1506
Mean
= 5.520
SD
= 2.239
Timmermans (1997): study BY 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990 N = 1015
Mean
= 5.530
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Beijing 1990 18+ aged, general public, Beijing, China, 1990-2005 N = 190
Mean
= 7.390
SD
= 1.930
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Behaira (Al Buḩayrah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Behaira (Al Buḩayrah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 200
Mean
= 7.031
SD
= 2.064
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Bayern 2005 18+ aged, general public, Bayern, Germany, 1981-2005 N = 356
Mean
= 7.242
SD
= 1.721
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ Bay of Plenty 1998 18+ aged, general public, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, 1998 N = 131
Mean
= 7.738
SD
= 2.017
World Values Survey (2004): study DZ Batna 2002 18+ aged, general public, Batna region, Algeria, 2002 N = 133
Mean
= 5.236
SD
= 2.875
World Values Survey (2004): study KG Batken oblast 2003 18+ aged, general public, Batken oblast region, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 180
Mean
= 6.193
SD
= 2.293
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Basrah 2004 18+ aged, general public, Basrah region, Iraq, 2004 N = 331
Mean
= 5.308
SD
= 2.304
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Baquba/Diyala 2004 18+ aged, general public, Baquba/Diyala region, Iraq, 2004 N = 243
Mean
= 4.518
SD
= 2.960
World Values Survey (2004): study BD 2002 18+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 2002 N = 1499
Mean
= 5.770
SD
= 2.180
World Values Survey (2004): study ML Bamako 2005 18+ aged, general public, Bamako region, Mali, 2005 N = 200
Mean
= 6.185
SD
= 2.361
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Baghdad 2004 18+ aged, general public, Baghdad region, Iraq, 2004 N = 1010
Mean
= 4.247
SD
= 2.492
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Baden-Wurttemberg 2005 18+ aged, general public, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, 1981-2005 N = 309
Mean
= 7.378
SD
= 1.859
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study AZ 2010 18+ aged, general public, Azerbaijan, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study AZ 1996 18+ aged, general public, Azerbaijan, 1996 N = 2002
Mean
= 5.394
SD
= 2.292
Stavrova & Fetchenhauer (2015): study AT 2010 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 2010 N = 1500
World Values Survey (2004): study AT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1999 N = 1522
Mean
= 8.021
SD
= 1.905
World Values Survey (2000): study AT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990 N = 1504
Mean
= 6.510
SD
= 3.372
Timmermans (1997): study AT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990 N = 1460
Mean
= 6.510
Fleche et al. (2011): study AT 1981 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1981-2008 N = 1186
Fleche et al. (2011): study AU 1994 18+ aged, general public, Australia,1994-2008 N = 2925
Inglehart et al. (2008): study AU 2005 18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2005 N = 1411
Mean
= 7.283
SD
= 1.812
World Values Survey (2004): study AU 1995 18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1995 N = 2048
Mean
= 7.552
SD
= 1.874
World Values Survey (2000): study AU 1981 18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1981 N = 1226
Mean
= 7.882
SD
= 1.746
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ Auckland 1998 18+ aged, general public, Auckland, New Zealand, 1998 N = 558
Mean
= 7.621
SD
= 1.905
World Values Survey (2004): study CO CO Atlántica 1997 18+ aged, general public, Atlántica, Colombia, 1997-2005 N = 1383
Mean
= 8.365
SD
= 1.871
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Asturias 1981 18+ aged, general public, Asturias region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 146
Mean
= 7.121
SD
= 1.963
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Assyut 1999 18+ aged, general public, Assyut region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 125
Mean
= 6.385
SD
= 2.499