print

Happiness Measures

Characteristics

Code:
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-e
Focus:
Contentment: Best-Worst possible life (C-BW)
Time frame:
currently (today, these days, presently) (c)
Mode:
1 question (sq)
Scale Type:
ladder scale (l)
Scale Range:
11

Description

Selfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder '10' represents the best possible life for you and the bottom '0' is the worst possible life for you. In general , where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Statistics Currie et al. (2004): study ZZ Developed nations 2001 11,13 and 15 aged, school children, 33 countries and regions, 2001 N = 162306
Currie et al. (2008): study ZZ Developed nations 2005 11,13 and 15 aged, school children, 41 countries and regions, 2005-2006 N = 204534
Naess et al. (2007): study NO 2005 16+ aged epilepsia patients, Norway, 2005-09 N = 597
Simoes et al. (2009): study PT 2001 Adolescents, Portugal, 2001-02 N = 6109
Vieno et al. (2009): study IT Veneto 2006 10-18 aged general public, Vieno: Italy, 2006 N = 6744
Mean
= 7.400
SD
= 1.790
HBSC (2002): study AT 2001 Teens, adolescents, Austria, 2001 N = 4410
Mean
= 7.950
SD
= 1.873
HBSC (2002): study CA 2001 Teens, adolescents, Canada, 2001 N = 4295
Mean
= 7.560
SD
= 1.882
HBSC (2002): study CH 2001 Teens, adolescents, Switzerland, 2001 N = 4646
Mean
= 7.817
SD
= 1.714
HBSC (2002): study CZ 2001 Teens, adolescents, Czech Republic, 2001 N = 4974
Mean
= 7.444
SD
= 1.889
HBSC (2002): study DK 2001 Teens, adolescents, Denmark, 2001 N = 4618
Mean
= 7.715
SD
= 1.797
HBSC (2002): study DE 2001 /1 Teens, adolescents, Germany, 2001 N = 5464
Mean
= 7.524
SD
= 1.821
HBSC (2002): study EE 2001 /1 Teens, adolescents, Estonia, 2001 N = 3968
Mean
= 7.171
SD
= 1.978
HBSC (2002): study GB 2001 Teens, adolescents, United Kingdom, 2001 N = 5551
Mean
= 7.293
SD
= 1.803
HBSC (2002): study ES 2001 Teens, adolescents, Spain, 2001 N = 5707
Mean
= 7.683
SD
= 1.813
HBSC (2002): study FI 2001 Teens, adolescents, Finland, 2001 N = 5287
Mean
= 7.953
SD
= 1.565
HBSC (2002): study FR 2001 Teens, adolescents, France, 2001 N = 8051
Mean
= 7.573
SD
= 1.889
HBSC (2002): study GL 2001 Teens, adolescents, Austria, 2001 N = 864
Mean
= 7.473
SD
= 2.165
HBSC (2002): study HR 2001 Teens, adolescents, Croatia, 2001 N = 4348
Mean
= 7.489
SD
= 2.043
HBSC (2002): study HU 2001 Teens, adolescents, Hungary, 2001 N = 4076
Mean
= 7.563
SD
= 1.833
HBSC (2002): study IE 2001 Teens, adolescents, Ireland, 2001 N = 2837
Mean
= 7.612
SD
= 1.898
HBSC (2002): study IL 2001 Teens, adolescents, Israel, 2001 N = 5458
Mean
= 8.038
SD
= 1.881
HBSC (2002): study IT 2001 Teens, adolescents, Italy, 2001 N = 4342
Mean
= 7.435
SD
= 1.935
HBSC (2002): study LT 2001 Teens, adolescents, Lithuania, 2001 N = 5417
Mean
= 7.057
SD
= 2.077
HBSC (2002): study LV 2001 Teens, adolescents, Latvia, 2001 N = 3381
Mean
= 7.013
SD
= 1.920
HBSC (2002): study MK 2001 Teens, adolescents, Macedonia, 2001 N = 4130
Mean
= 8.457
SD
= 1.880
HBSC (2002): study NL 2001 Teens, adolescents, Netherlands, 2001 N = 4213
Mean
= 8.140
SD
= 1.558
HBSC (2002): study NO 2001 Teens, adolescents, Norway, 2001 N = 4956
Mean
= 7.463
SD
= 1.959
HBSC (2002): study PL 2001 Teens, adolescents, Poland, 2001 N = 6241
Mean
= 7.346
SD
= 2.098
HBSC (2002): study PT 2001 Teens, adolescents, Portugal, 2001 N = 2862
Mean
= 7.397
SD
= 1.898
HBSC (2002): study RU 2001 Teens, adolescents, Russia, 2001 N = 8031
Mean
= 7.103
SD
= 2.079
HBSC (2002): study GB Scotland 2001 Teens, adolescents, Scotland, United Kingdom, 2001 N = 4378
Mean
= 7.662
SD
= 1.843
HBSC (2002): study SE 2001 Teens, adolescents, Austria, 2001 N = 3877
Mean
= 7.597
SD
= 1.870
HBSC (2002): study SI 2001 Teens, adolescents, Slovenia, 2001 N = 3861
Mean
= 7.650
SD
= 1.851
HBSC (2002): study UA 2001 Teens, adolescents, Ukraine, 2001 N = 4047
Mean
= 6.940
SD
= 2.099
HBSC (2002): study US 2001 Teens, adolescents, United States, 2001 N = 4965
Mean
= 7.477
SD
= 2.000
HBSC (2002): study GB Wales 2001 Teens, adolescents, Wales, United Kingdom, 2001 N = 3827
Mean
= 7.370
SD
= 1.782
HBSC (2005): study AT 2005 Teens, adolescents, Austria, 2005 N = 4792
Mean
= 7.834
SD
= 1.877
HBSC (2005): study BE 2005 Teens, adolescents, Belgium, Flanders, 2005 N = 4241
Mean
= 7.696
SD
= 1.684
HBSC (2005): study BG 2005 Teens, adolescents, Bulgaria, 2005 N = 4812
Mean
= 7.507
SD
= 2.007
HBSC (2005): study CA 2005 Teens, adolescents, Canada, 2005 N = 5875
Mean
= 7.419
SD
= 1.826
HBSC (2005): study CH 2005 Teens, adolescents, Switzerland, 2005 N = 4464
Mean
= 7.779
SD
= 1.804
HBSC (2005): study CZ 2005 Teens, adolescents, Czech Republic, 2005 N = 4699
Mean
= 7.285
SD
= 1.880
HBSC (2005): study DE 2005 Teens, adolescents, Germany, 2005 N = 7156
Mean
= 7.328
SD
= 1.950
HBSC (2005): study DK 2005 Teens, adolescents, Denmark, 2005 N = 5665
Mean
= 7.812
SD
= 1.678
HBSC (2005): study EE 2005 Teens, adolescents, Estonia, 2005 N = 4457
Mean
= 7.646
SD
= 1.931
HBSC (2005): study GB 2005 Teens, adolescents, United Kingdom, 2005 N = 4728
Mean
= 7.521
SD
= 1.891
HBSC (2005): study ES 2005 Teens, adolescents, Spain, 2005 N = 8608
Mean
= 8.054
SD
= 1.735
HBSC (2005): study FI 2005 Teens, adolescents, Finland, 2005 N = 5173
Mean
= 7.936
SD
= 1.570
HBSC (2005): study FR 2005 Teens, adolescents, France, 2005 N = 7099
Mean
= 7.479
SD
= 1.937
HBSC (2005): study GL 2005 Teens, adolescents, Greenland, 2005 N = 1264
Mean
= 7.839
SD
= 2.069
HBSC (2005): study GR 2005 Teens, adolescents, Greece, 2005 N = 3656
Mean
= 8.018
SD
= 1.781
HBSC (2005): study HR 2005 Teens, adolescents, Croatia, 2005 N = 4950
Mean
= 7.333
SD
= 2.002
HBSC (2005): study HU 2005 Teens, adolescents, Hungary, 2005 N = 3435
Mean
= 7.262
SD
= 1.886
HBSC (2005): study IE 2005 Teens, adolescents, Ireland, 2005 N = 4809
Mean
= 7.720
SD
= 1.884
HBSC (2005): study IL 2005 Teens, adolescents, Israel, 2005 N = 4618
Mean
= 8.085
SD
= 2.076
HBSC (2005): study IS 2005 Teens, adolescents, Iceland, 2005 N = 9327
Mean
= 7.799
SD
= 1.854
HBSC (2005): study IT 2005 Teens, adolescents, Italy, 2005 N = 3922
Mean
= 7.517
SD
= 2.005
HBSC (2005): study LT 2005 Teens, adolescents, Lithuania, 2005 N = 5587
Mean
= 7.308
SD
= 2.123
HBSC (2005): study LU 2005 Teens, adolescents, Luxembourg, 2005 N = 4288
Mean
= 7.484
SD
= 1.915
HBSC (2005): study LV 2005 Teens, adolescents, Latvia, 2005 N = 4190
Mean
= 6.937
SD
= 1.792
HBSC (2005): study MK 2005 Teens, adolescents, Macedonia, 2005 N = 5225
Mean
= 8.203
SD
= 2.038
HBSC (2005): study NL 2005 Teens, adolescents, Netherlands, 2005 N = 4252
Mean
= 7.886
SD
= 1.563
HBSC (2005): study NO 2005 Teens, adolescents, Norway, 2005 N = 4577
Mean
= 7.867
SD
= 1.829
HBSC (2005): study PL 2005 Teens, adolescents, Poland, 2005 N = 5442
Mean
= 7.301
SD
= 1.955
HBSC (2005): study PT 2005 Teens, adolescents, Portugal, 2005 N = 3881
Mean
= 7.397
SD
= 1.871
HBSC (2005): study RO 2005 Teens, adolescents, Romania, 2005 N = 4651
Mean
= 7.721
SD
= 1.996
HBSC (2005): study RU 2005 Teens, adolescents, Russia, 2005 N = 7992
Mean
= 7.280
SD
= 2.154
HBSC (2005): study GB Scotland 2005 Teens, adolescents, Scotland, United Kingdom, 2005 N = 6118
Mean
= 7.457
SD
= 1.884
HBSC (2005): study SE 2005 Teens, adolescents, Sweden, 2005 N = 4351
Mean
= 7.811
SD
= 1.914
HBSC (2005): study SI 2005 Teens, adolescents, Spain, 2005 N = 5025
Mean
= 7.527
SD
= 1.830
HBSC (2005): study SK 2005 Teens, adolescents, Slovakia, 2005 N = 5025
Mean
= 7.788
SD
= 2.134
HBSC (2005): study TR 2005 Teens, adolescents, Turkey, 2005 N = 5478
Mean
= 6.744
SD
= 2.272
HBSC (2005): study UA 2005 Teens, adolescents, Ukraine, 2005 N = 4919
Mean
= 7.232
SD
= 1.950
HBSC (2005): study US 2005 Teens, adolescents, United States, 2005 N = 3832
Mean
= 7.434
SD
= 1.893
HBSC (2005): study GB Wales 2005 Teens, adolescents, Wales, United Kingdom, 2005 N = 4276
Mean
= 7.127
SD
= 1.909
HBSC (2009): study AM 2009 Teens, adolescents, Armenia, 2009 N = 2545
Mean
= 8.523
SD
= 1.936
HBSC (2009): study AT 2009 Teens, adolescents, Austria, 2009 N = 4937
Mean
= 7.583
SD
= 1.922
HBSC (2009): study BE 2009 Teens, adolescents, Belgium, Flanders, 2009 N = 4112
Mean
= 7.642
SD
= 1.628
HBSC (2009): study BE 2009 /1 Teens, adolescents, Belgium, Wallonia, 2009 N = 3824
Mean
= 7.542
SD
= 1.988
HBSC (2009): study BE 2009 /2 Teens, adolescents, Belgium, 2009 N = 7936
Mean
= 7.588
SD
= 1.814
HBSC (2009): study CA 2009 Teens, adolescents, Canada, 2009 N = 15302
Mean
= 7.340
SD
= 1.923
HBSC (2009): study CH 2009 Teens, adolescents, Switzerland, 2009 N = 6537
Mean
= 7.701
SD
= 1.845
HBSC (2009): study CZ 2009 Teens, adolescents, Czech Republic, 2009 N = 4271
Mean
= 7.506
SD
= 1.842
HBSC (2009): study DE 2009 Teens, adolescents, Germany, 2009 N = 4951
Mean
= 7.406
SD
= 1.854
HBSC (2009): study DK 2009 Teens, adolescents, Denmark, 2009 N = 4270
Mean
= 7.538
SD
= 1.802
HBSC (2009): study EE 2009 Teens, adolescents, Estonia, 2009 N = 4216
Mean
= 7.672
SD
= 1.788
HBSC (2009): study GB 2009 Teens, adolescents, Estonia, 2009 N = 3419
Mean
= 7.399
SD
= 1.780
HBSC (2009): study ES 2009 Teens, adolescents, Spain, 2009 N = 4883
Mean
= 7.966
SD
= 1.902
HBSC (2009): study FI 2009 Teens, adolescents, Finland, 2009 N = 6657
Mean
= 8.567
SD
= 1.593
HBSC (2009): study FR 2009 Teens, adolescents, France, 2009 N = 6073
Mean
= 7.539
SD
= 1.877
HBSC (2009): study GL 2009 Teens, adolescents, Greenland, 2009 N = 1074
Mean
= 7.897
SD
= 2.035
HBSC (2009): study GR 2009 Teens, adolescents, Greece, 2009 N = 4890
Mean
= 7.854
SD
= 1.760
HBSC (2009): study HR 2009 Teens, adolescents, Croatia, 2009 N = 6224
Mean
= 7.538
SD
= 1.833
HBSC (2009): study HU 2009 Teens, adolescents, Hungary, 2009 N = 4795
Mean
= 7.414
SD
= 1.866
HBSC (2009): study IE 2009 Teens, adolescents, Germany, 2009 N = 4714
Mean
= 7.597
SD
= 1.912
HBSC (2009): study IL 2009 Teens, adolescents, Israel, 2009 N = 3704
Mean
= 7.977
SD
= 2.152
HBSC (2009): study IS 2009 Teens, adolescents, Iceland, 2009 N = 10937
Mean
= 7.975
SD
= 1.800
HBSC (2009): study IT 2009 Teens, adolescents, Italy, 2009 N = 4794
Mean
= 7.534
SD
= 1.932
HBSC (2009): study LT 2009 Teens, adolescents, Lithuania, 2009 N = 5262
Mean
= 7.558
SD
= 2.159
HBSC (2009): study LU 2009 Teens, adolescents, Luxembourg, 2009 N = 4078
Mean
= 7.654
SD
= 1.893
HBSC (2009): study LV 2009 Teens, adolescents, Latvia, 2009 N = 4178
Mean
= 7.338
SD
= 1.796
HBSC (2009): study MK 2009 Teens, adolescents, Macedonia, 2009 N = 3732
Mean
= 8.131
SD
= 2.124
HBSC (2009): study NL 2009 Teens, adolescents, Netherlands, 2009 N = 4517
Mean
= 7.986
SD
= 1.494
HBSC (2009): study NO 2009 Teens, adolescents, Norway, 2009 N = 4223
Mean
= 7.783
SD
= 1.877
HBSC (2009): study PL 2009 Teens, adolescents, Poland, 2009 N = 4188
Mean
= 7.222
SD
= 2.063
HBSC (2009): study PT 2009 Teens, adolescents, Portugal, 2009 N = 3947
Mean
= 7.488
SD
= 1.823
HBSC (2009): study RO 2009 Teens, adolescents, Romania, 2009 N = 5284
Mean
= 7.572
SD
= 2.077
HBSC (2009): study RU 2009 Teens, adolescents, Russia, 2009 N = 4919
Mean
= 7.512
SD
= 2.037
HBSC (2009): study GB Scotland 2009 Teens, adolescents, Scotland, United Kingdom, 2009 N = 6710
Mean
= 7.658
SD
= 1.801
HBSC (2009): study SE 2009 Teens, adolescents, Sweden, 2009 N = 6457
Mean
= 7.716
SD
= 1.890
HBSC (2009): study SI 2009 Teens, adolescents, Slovenia, 2009 N = 5357
Mean
= 7.670
SD
= 1.798
HBSC (2009): study SK 2009 Teens, adolescents, Slovakia, 2009 N = 5270
Mean
= 7.459
SD
= 1.969
HBSC (2009): study TR 2009 Teens, adolescents, Turkey, 2009 N = 5383
Mean
= 6.643
SD
= 2.399
HBSC (2009): study UA 2009 Teens, adolescents, Ukraine, 2009 N = 5670
Mean
= 7.212
SD
= 2.027
HBSC (2009): study US 2009 Teens, adolescents, United States, 2009 N = 6172
Mean
= 7.522
SD
= 1.938
HBSC (2009): study GB Wales 2009 Teens, adolescents, Wales, United Kingdom, 2009 N = 5188
Mean
= 7.353
SD
= 1.949
HBSC (2002): study GB 2001 /1 Teens, adolescents, United Kingdom, 2001 N = 13756
Mean
= 7.430
SD
= 1.816
HBSC (2005): study GB 2005 /1 Teens, adolescents, United Kingdom, 2009 N = 15122
Mean
= 7.381
SD
= 1.910
HBSC (2009): study GB 2009 /1 Teens, adolescents, United Kingdom, 2009 N = 15317
Mean
= 7.495
SD
= 1.857
OECD (2017): study AT 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Austria, 2017 N = 7007
Mean
= 7.520
SD
= 2.200
OECD (2017): study CL 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Chile, 2017 N = 7053
Mean
= 7.370
SD
= 2.310
OECD (2017): study BE 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Belgium, 2017 N = 9651
Mean
= 7.490
SD
= 1.990
OECD (2017): study CZ 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Czech Replublic, 2017 N = 5587
Mean
= 7.050
SD
= 2.300
OECD (2017): study EE 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Estonia, 2017 N = 5587
Mean
= 7.050
SD
= 2.300
OECD (2017): study FI 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Finland, 2017 N = 5882
Mean
= 7.890
SD
= 1.850
OECD (2017): study GR 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Greece, 2017 N = 5532
Mean
= 6.910
SD
= 2.300
OECD (2017): study HU 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Hungary, 2017 N = 5658
Mean
= 7.171
SD
= 2.310
OECD (2017): study JP 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Japan, 2017 N = 6647
Mean
= 6.803
SD
= 2.286
OECD (2017): study LV 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Latvia, 2017 N = 4869
Mean
= 7.371
SD
= 2.021
OECD (2017): study NL 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Netherlands, 2017 N = 5385
Mean
= 7.824
SD
= 1.544
OECD (2017): study PL 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Poland, 2017 N = 4478
Mean
= 7.187
SD
= 2.299
OECD (2017): study SK 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Slovakia, 2017 N = 6350
Mean
= 7.469
SD
= 2.295
OECD (2017): study SI 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Slovenia, 2017 N = 6406
Mean
= 7.179
SD
= 2.285
OECD (2017): study CH 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Switzerland, 2017 N = 5860
Mean
= 7.720
SD
= 1.970
OECD (2017): study TR 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Turkey, 2017 N = 5895
Mean
= 6.118
SD
= 2.935
OECD (2017): study US 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, United States of America, 2017 N = 5712
Mean
= 7.351
SD
= 2.215
OECD (2017): study BR 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Brazil, 2017 N = 23141
Mean
= 7.583
SD
= 2.423
OECD (2017): study CN 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, China, 2017 N = 9841
Mean
= 6.832
SD
= 2.335
OECD (2017): study BG 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Bulgaria, 2017 N = 5928
Mean
= 7.428
SD
= 2.527
OECD (2017): study CR 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Costa Rica, 2017 N = 6866
Mean
= 8.206
SD
= 2.124
OECD (2017): study CY 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Cyprus, 2017 N = 5571
Mean
= 7.064
SD
= 2.309
OECD (2017): study LT 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Lithuania, 2017 N = 6525
Mean
= 7.865
SD
= 2.151
OECD (2017): study ME 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Montenegro, 2017 N = 5665
Mean
= 7.753
SD
= 2.487
OECD (2017): study PE 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Peru, 2017 N = 6971
Mean
= 7.496
SD
= 2.434
OECD (2017): study QA 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Qatar, 2017 N = 12083
Mean
= 7.413
SD
= 2.540
OECD (2017): study RU 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Russia, 2017 N = 6036
Mean
= 7.758
SD
= 2.278
OECD (2017): study TH 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Thailand, 2017 N = 8249
Mean
= 7.706
SD
= 2.125
OECD (2017): study TN 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Tunisia, 2017 N = 5375
Mean
= 6.900
SD
= 2.890
OECD (2017): study UY 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Uruguay, 2017 N = 6062
Mean
= 7.696
SD
= 2.271
OECD (2017): study AE 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, United Arab Emirates, 2017 N = 14167
Mean
= 7.299
SD
= 2.504
OECD (2017): study TW 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Taiwan, 2017 N = 7708
Mean
= 6.594
SD
= 2.117
OECD (2017): study CO 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Colombia, 2017 N = 11795
Mean
= 7.881
SD
= 2.359
OECD (2017): study MY 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Malaysia, 2017 N = 8861
Mean
= 7.065
SD
= 2.136
OECD (2017): study FR 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, France, 2017 N = 6108
Mean
= 7.630
SD
= 1.940
OECD (2017): study DE 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Germany, 2017 N = 6522
Mean
= 7.350
SD
= 2.170
OECD (2017): study IT 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Italy, 2017 N = 11583
Mean
= 6.890
SD
= 2.250
OECD (2017): study PT 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Portugal, 2017 N = 7325
Mean
= 7.360
SD
= 199.000
OECD (2017): study GB 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, United Kingdom, 2017 N = 14157
Mean
= 6.980
SD
= 2.310
OECD (2017): study IS 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Iceland, 2017 N = 3374
Mean
= 7.800
SD
= 2.210
OECD (2017): study IE 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Ireland, 2017 N = 5741
Mean
= 7.300
SD
= 2.150
OECD (2017): study LU 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Luxembourg, 2017 N = 5299
Mean
= 7.380
SD
= 2.210
OECD (2017): study KR 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Korea (South), 2017 N = 5581
Mean
= 6.360
SD
= 2.350
OECD (2017): study MX 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Mexico, 2017 N = 7568
Mean
= 8.270
SD
= 2.020
OECD (2017): study ES 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Spain, 2017 N = 6736
Mean
= 7.420
SD
= 2.070
OECD (2017): study HR 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Croatia, 2017 N = 5809
Mean
= 7.906
SD
= 2.046
OECD (2017): study DO 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Dominican Republic, 2017 N = 4740
Mean
= 8.500
SD
= 2.320
OECD (2017): study MO 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Macao, 2017 N = 4476
Mean
= 6.590
SD
= 2.120
OECD (2017): study HK 2015 15-16 aged, secundary school students, Hong Kong, 2017 N = 5359
Mean
= 6.477
SD
= 2.060