Happiness Measures

Measures of Happiness: A-BW-m-mq-v-5-e


Affect: Balance (Watson et al PANAS) (A-BW)
Time frame:
momentary (now) (m)
multiple questions (mq)
Scale Type:
verbal scale (v)
Scale Range:


Self report on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you feel this way right now:
A  nervous
B  distressed
C  afraid
D  jittery
E  irritable
F  upset
G  scared
H  ashamed
I  guilty
J  hostile
K  excited
L  active
M  determined
N  inspired
O  enthusiastic
P  alert
Q  attentive
R  proud
S  strong
T  interested

Answer options:  
1  very slightly or not at all
2  a little
3  moderately
4  quite a bit
5  extremely

Negative affect score NAS: (A to J) / 10
Positive affect score PAS:  (K to T)/10
Affect Balance Score  (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS ('moment' version)

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Mean
Standard Deviation
Lyubomirsky et al. (2006): study US 2003 Student participants in a life review exercise and controls, California, USA, 2003 N =
Gavian (2011): study US 2010 Student participants in a psychological training, USA, 2010 N =