Happiness Measures

Measures of Happiness: A-BW-g-mq-v-5-b


Affect: Balance (Watson et al PANAS) (A-BW)
Time frame:
generally (g)
multiple questions (mq)
Scale Type:
verbal scale (v)
Scale Range:


Self report on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way in general?:

A  nervous
B  distressed
C  afraid
D  jittery
E  irritable
F  upset
G  scared
H  ashamed
I  guilty
J  hostile
K  excited
L  active
M  determined
N  inspired
O  enthusiastic
P  alert
Q  attentive
R  proud
S  strong
T  interested

Answer options:  
1  very slightly or not at all
2  a little
3  moderately
4  quite a bit
5  extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to J
Positive affect score (PAS): K to T
Affect Balance Score  (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS (in general version)

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Mean
Standard Deviation
Coote & MacLeod (2012): study GB Depressed adults, United Kingdom, 200? N =
Chan (2010): study HK 2007 School teachers participating in happiness training, Hong Kong, 2007 N =
Chan (2013): study HK 2011 School teachers, Hongkong, 2011 N =
Chan (2013a): study CN 2008 Schoolteachers, Hongkong, China, 2008 N =
Bajaj et al. (2016): study IN 2014 Undergraduate students, India, 2014 N =
Lü et al. (2013): study CN 2009 Students low in positive affect, China, 2009 N =