Happiness Measures

Measures of Happiness: A-BW-g-mq-v-5-a


Affect: Balance (Watson et al PANAS) (A-BW)
Time frame:
generally (g)
multiple questions (mq)
Scale Type:
verbal scale (v)
Scale Range:


Self report on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you feel this way

A  nervous
B  distressed
C  afraid
D  jittery
E  irritable
F  upset
G  scared
H  ashamed
I  guilty
J  hostile
K  excited
L  active
M  determined
N  inspired
O  enthusiastic
P  alert
Q  attentive
R  proud
S  strong
T  interested

Answer options:  
1  very slightly or not at all
2  a little
3  moderately
4  quite a bit
5  extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): (A to J)/10
Positive affect score (PAS): (K to T)/10
Affect Balance Score  (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS (time version not reported)

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Mean
Standard Deviation
Cropanzano & James (1993): study US 1990 Female nurses, United States, 1990 N =
Berry & Willingham (1997): study US 1992 University students, USA, 199? N =
Wright & Cropanzano (1998): study US 1995 Social welfare workers, USA, followed 1 year,1995 N =
Moorman (1993): study US 1990 Employees, United States, 1990 N =
Cropanzano & James (1993): study US 1990 /1 Pathology laboratory personnel, United States, 1990 N =