Happiness Measures

Measures of Happiness: A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-b


Affect: Balance (Watson et al PANAS) (A-BW)
Time frame:
last week (cw)
multiple questions (mq)
Scale Type:
verbal scale (v)
Scale Range:


Self report on 20 questions.

Indicate to what extend you felt this way in the last week.
A  nervous
B  distressed
C  afraid
D  edgy
E  grouchy
F  upset
G  scared
H ashamed
I   guilty
J  hostile
K excited
L  active
M  determined
N  inspired
O  enthusiastic
P  alert
Q  attentive
R  proud
S  emotionally strong
T  interested

Answer options:
1  very slightly or not at all
2  a little
3  moderately
4  quite a bit
5  extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to J
Positive affect score   (PAS): K to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS (adapted last week version for children)

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Mean
Standard Deviation
Hurley & Kwon (2012): study US 2011 Student participants in a savouring exercise and controls, USA, 2011 N =
Proctor et al. (2011a): study GB 2009 Adolescents, participants in a strengt training and controls, UK, 2009 N =
Fofonka Cunha et al. (2019): study BR 2016 Students, Brazil, 2016-2017 N =
Van Agteren et al. (2021a): study AU 2016 Participants in a meaning training,,Australia and New Zealand, 202? N =
Archer et al. (2008): study SE Göteborg 2002 /2 Office workers, Göteborg, Sweden, 200? N =
Archer et al. (2008): study SE Göteborg 2002 Highschool students, Gotenborg, Sweden 200? N =
Archer et al. (2008): study SE Göteborg 2002 /1 High school students, Goteborg, Sweden 200? N =