Happiness Measures

Measures of Happiness: A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-a


Affect: Balance (Bradburn's index) (A-BB)
Time frame:
last week (cw)
multiple questions (mq)
Scale Type:
verbal scale (v)
Scale Range:


Self report on 10 questions:

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"

A   So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
B   Proud, because someone had complimented you
C   Very lonely or remote  from people?
D   Pleased about having accomplished something
E   Bored
F   On top of the world?
G   Depressed
H   That things were going your way?
I    Upset because someone criticized you?
J   Could not do anything, simply because you could not start?

Answer options and scoring:
- yes  = 1
- no  =  0

Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed  scores on  B,D F,H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed  scores on A,C,E,G,I,J
Affect Balance Score (ABS):  PAS minus NAS

Possible range -6 to +4

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale'  (adapted version)

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Mean
Standard Deviation
Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981 N =
Palisi & Canning (1983): study ZZ Western nations 1977 Males, metropolitan areas, England, USA, Australia, 1977-1980 N =
Noelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1973 16+ aged, general public, West-Germany, 1973 N =
Greaves-Otte et al. (1991): study NL 1990 Ex-cancer patients, the Netherlands, 1987 N =
Toussaint & Friedman (2009): study US 2004 Psychotherapy outpatients, Philadelphia, USA, 2004 N =
Baltatescu (2014): study RO 1999 18+ aged general public Romania 1999 N =