# Happiness Measures

## Characteristics

Code:
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tb
Focus:
Affect: Affect Balance (Various) (A-AB)
Time frame:
yesterday (yd)
Mode:
multiple questions (mq)
Scale Type:
verbal scale (v)
Scale Range:
2

## Description

Self report on 6 questions

A  Did you smile and laugh a lot yesterday?

Did you experience the following feelings during A LOT OF THE DAY yesterday?
B  How about enjoyment?
C  How about worry?
E  How about happiness?
F  How about anger?

Rated:
1 yes
0  no

Computation:
- Average % positive affect = (A+B+E)/3
- Average % negative affect = (C+D+F)/3
- Affect Balance = Average % positive affect - Average % negative affect

Transformation to range 0-10:
(Score[range-100-100] + 100)/200*10

These questions do not measure hedonic level of affect of individual persons adequately, since yesterday's mood does not always correspond with typical average mood. Yet these questions can be used for measuring hedonic level in aggregates, such as nations, since individual variations balance out in big samples.

## List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Mean
Standard Deviation
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2008 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 25.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NL 2011 15+ aged general public, Netherlands, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 68.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NI 2009 15+ aged general public, Nicaragua, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NI 2010 15+ aged general public, Nicaragua, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NI 2011 15+ aged general public, Nicaragua, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NI 2012 15+ aged general public, Nicaragua, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 54.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NL 2008 15+ aged general public, Netherlands, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NL 2010 15+ aged general public, Netherlands, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 64.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NL 2012 15+ aged general public, Netherlands, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NG 2012 15+ aged general public, Nigeria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NO 2008 15+ aged general public, Norway, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NO 2012 15+ aged general public, Norway, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NP 2008 15+ aged general public, Nepal, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NP 2009 15+ aged general public, Nepal, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NP 2010 15+ aged general public, Nepal, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NP 2011 15+ aged general public, Nepal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NP 2012 15+ aged general public, Nepal, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NI 2008 15+ aged general public, Nicaragua, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.450
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NG 2010 15+ aged general public, Nigeria, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NZ 2010 15+ aged general public, New Zealand, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MY 2012 15+ aged general public, Malaysia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 69.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MX 2010 15+ aged general public, Mexico, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.460
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MX 2011 15+ aged general public, Mexico, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MX 2012 15+ aged general public, Mexico, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MY 2008 15+ aged general public, Malaysia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MY 2009 15+ aged general public, Malaysia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 65.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MY 2010 15+ aged general public, Malaysia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 64.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MY 2011 15+ aged general public, Malaysia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 73.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MZ 2008 15+ aged general public, Mozambique, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NG 2009 15+ aged general public, Nigeria, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Mozambique, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2008 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 45.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2009 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2010 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2011 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2012 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 46.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NG 2008 15+ aged general public, Nigeria, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NZ 2008 15+ aged general public, New Zealand, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NZ 2011 15+ aged general public, New Zealand, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 65.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MX 2008 15+ aged general public, Mexico, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PS 2010 15+ aged general public, Palestine, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 24.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PL 2009 15+ aged general public, Poland, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PL 2010 15+ aged general public, Poland, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.270
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PL 2011 15+ aged general public, Poland, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PL 2012 15+ aged general public, Poland, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 52.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PS 2008 15+ aged general public, Palestine, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 16.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PS 2009 15+ aged general public, Palestine, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PS 2011 15+ aged general public, Palestine, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 17.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PK 2011 15+ aged general public, Pakistan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 27.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PS 2012 15+ aged general public, Palestine, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 23.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PT 2008 15+ aged general public, Portugal, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PT 2010 15+ aged general public, Portugal, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 47.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PT 2011 15+ aged general public, Portugal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PT 2012 15+ aged general public, Portugal, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PY 2008 15+ aged general public, Paraguay, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PY 2009 15+ aged general public, Paraguay, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 64.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PK 2012 15+ aged general public, Pakistan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PK 2010 15+ aged general public, Pakistan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 27.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NZ 2012 15+ aged general public, New Zealand, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 65.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PE 2010 15+ aged general public, Peru, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 46.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PA 2008 15+ aged general public, Panama, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 66.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PA 2009 15+ aged general public, Panama, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 73.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PA 2010 15+ aged general public, Panama, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 74.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PA 2011 15+ aged general public, Panama, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 70.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PA 2012 15+ aged general public, Panama, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 66.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PE 2008 15+ aged general public, Peru, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PE 2009 15+ aged general public, Peru, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PE 2011 15+ aged general public, Peru, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PK 2009 15+ aged general public, Pakistan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 29.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PE 2012 15+ aged general public, Peru, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PH 2008 15+ aged general public, Philippines, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 42.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PH 2009 15+ aged general public, Philippines, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PH 2010 15+ aged general public, Philippines, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PH 2011 15+ aged general public, Philippines, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PH 2012 15+ aged general public, Philippines, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PK 2008 15+ aged general public, Pakistan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MX 2009 15+ aged general public, Mexico, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 65.270
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MW 2012 15+ aged general public, Malawi, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PY 2011 15+ aged general public, Paraguay, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LT 2012 15+ aged general public, Lithuania, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 30.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LR 2010 15+ aged general public, Liberia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 37.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LS 2011 15+ aged general public, Lesotho, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LT 2008 15+ aged general public, Lithuania, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 25.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LT 2009 15+ aged general public, Lithuania, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 25.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LT 2010 15+ aged general public, Lithuania, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 20.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LT 2011 15+ aged general public, Lithuania, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 29.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LU 2009 15+ aged general public, Luxembourg, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2012 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 66.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LU 2010 15+ aged general public, Luxembourg, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.270
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LU 2011 15+ aged general public, Luxembourg, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LU 2012 15+ aged general public, Luxembourg, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LV 2008 15+ aged general public, Latvia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 42.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LV 2009 15+ aged general public, Latvia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 28.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LV 2011 15+ aged general public, Latvia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LV 2012 15+ aged general public, Latvia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 32.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LR 2008 15+ aged general public, Liberia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 32.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2011 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 65.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MA 2011 15+ aged general public, Morocco, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 54.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LA 2011 15+ aged general public, Laos, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 67.450
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KR 2011 15+ aged general public, Korea (South), 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KR 2012 15+ aged general public, Korea (South), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 45.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KW 2009 15+ aged general public, Kuwait, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 46.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KW 2010 15+ aged general public, Kuwait, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.460
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KW 2011 15+ aged general public, Kuwait, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KW 2012 15+ aged general public, Kuwait, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 72.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LA 2008 15+ aged general public, Laos, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LA 2012 15+ aged general public, Laos, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2010 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 65.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LB 2008 15+ aged general public, Lebanon, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 16.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LB 2009 15+ aged general public, Lebanon, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 12.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LB 2010 15+ aged general public, Lebanon, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 18.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LB 2011 15+ aged general public, Lebanon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 25.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LB 2012 15+ aged general public, Lebanon, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 16.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2008 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2009 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LY 2012 15+ aged general public, Libya, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 37.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MA 2012 15+ aged general public, Morocco, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MW 2011 15+ aged general public, Malawi, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2010 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 64.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MM 2012 15+ aged general public, Myanmar, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 55.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MN 2008 15+ aged general public, Mongolia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 41.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MN 2010 15+ aged general public, Mongolia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MN 2011 15+ aged general public, Mongolia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MN 2012 15+ aged general public, Mongolia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2008 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 55.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2009 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2011 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2011 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2012 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MT 2009 15+ aged general public, Malta, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MT 2010 15+ aged general public, Malta, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 32.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MT 2011 15+ aged general public, Malta, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MT 2012 15+ aged general public, Malta, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MU 2011 15+ aged general public, Mauritius, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MW 2009 15+ aged general public, Malawi, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2012 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2010 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MD 2008 15+ aged general public, Moldova, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 30.020
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ME 2012 15+ aged general public, Montenegro, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 19.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MD 2009 15+ aged general public, Moldova, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 25.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MD 2010 15+ aged general public, Moldova, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 30.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MD 2011 15+ aged general public, Moldova, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 28.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MD 2012 15+ aged general public, Moldova, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 25.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ME 2009 15+ aged general public, Montenegro, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 20.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ME 2010 15+ aged general public, Montenegro, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 18.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ME 2011 15+ aged general public, Montenegro, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 22.460
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2008 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2009 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2011 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 27.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2012 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MK 2009 15+ aged general public, North Macedonia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 20.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MK 2010 15+ aged general public, North Macedonia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 25.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MK 2011 15+ aged general public, North Macedonia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 22.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MK 2012 15+ aged general public, North Macedonia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 22.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2008 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PY 2010 15+ aged general public, Paraguay, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 67.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PY 2012 15+ aged general public, Paraguay, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KR 2009 15+ aged general public, Korea (South), 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study US 2010 15+ aged general public, United States of America, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2009 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2010 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2011 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 42.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2012 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study US 2008 15+ aged general public, United States of America, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 64.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study US 2009 15+ aged general public, United States of America, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study US 2011 15+ aged general public, United States of America, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UA 2012 15+ aged general public, Ukraine, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 37.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study US 2012 15+ aged general public, United States of America, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UY 2008 15+ aged general public, Uruguay, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UY 2009 15+ aged general public, Uruguay, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UY 2010 15+ aged general public, Uruguay, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UY 2011 15+ aged general public, Uruguay, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 55.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UY 2012 15+ aged general public, Uruguay, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UZ 2008 15+ aged general public, Uzbekistan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 52.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2008 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UA 2011 15+ aged general public, Ukraine, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 37.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UZ 2010 15+ aged general public, Uzbekistan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TW 2011 15+ aged general public, Taiwan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 71.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TR 2010 15+ aged general public, Turkey, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 32.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TR 2011 15+ aged general public, Turkey, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 24.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TR 2012 15+ aged general public, Turkey, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 30.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TT 2008 15+ aged general public, Trinidad and Tobago, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TT 2011 15+ aged general public, Trinidad and Tobago, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 77.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TW 2008 15+ aged general public, Taiwan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TW 2010 15+ aged general public, Taiwan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 70.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TW 2012 15+ aged general public, Taiwan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 68.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UA 2010 15+ aged general public, Ukraine, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 28.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2008 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2009 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2010 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2012 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UA 2008 15+ aged general public, Ukraine, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 38.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UA 2009 15+ aged general public, Ukraine, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UZ 2009 15+ aged general public, Uzbekistan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Uzbekistan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 66.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TR 2008 15+ aged general public, Turkey, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 26.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2012 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZM 2009 15+ aged general public, Zambia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZM 2011 15+ aged general public, Zambia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZM 2012 15+ aged general public, Zambia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 47.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2008 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 38.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2009 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2010 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2011 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Kosovo 2012 15+ aged general public, Kosovo, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZA 2012 15+ aged general public, South Africa, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.320
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Kosovo 2011 15+ aged general public, Kosovo, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Kosovo 2010 15+ aged general public, Kosovo, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Kosovo 2009 15+ aged general public, Kosovo, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 42.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Somaliland 2012 15+ aged general public, Somaliland, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Somaliland 2011 15+ aged general public, Somaliland, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Somaliland 2010 15+ aged general public, Somaliland, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 68.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Somaliland 2009 15+ aged general public, Somaliland, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 70.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZM 2008 15+ aged general public, Zambia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZA 2011 15+ aged general public, South Africa, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UZ 2012 15+ aged general public, Uzbekistan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 66.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study VN 2010 15+ aged general public, Viet Nam, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 46.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study VE 2008 15+ aged general public, Venezuela, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study VE 2009 15+ aged general public, Venezuela, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 64.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study VE 2010 15+ aged general public, Venezuela, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 73.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study VE 2011 15+ aged general public, Venezuela, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study VE 2012 15+ aged general public, Venezuela, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 68.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study VN 2008 15+ aged general public, Viet Nam, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study VN 2009 15+ aged general public, Viet Nam, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study VN 2011 15+ aged general public, Viet Nam, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZA 2010 15+ aged general public, South Africa, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 67.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study VN 2012 15+ aged general public, Viet Nam, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2009 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 20.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2010 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 27.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2011 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 21.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2012 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 23.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZA 2008 15+ aged general public, South Africa, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZA 2009 15+ aged general public, South Africa, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TR 2009 15+ aged general public, Turkey, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 28.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TN 2012 15+ aged general public, Tunisia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 19.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study QA 2009 15+ aged general public, Qatar, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 41.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SD 2011 15+ aged general public, Sudan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SA 2009 15+ aged general public, Saudi Arabia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 42.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SA 2010 15+ aged general public, Saudi Arabia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SA 2011 15+ aged general public, Saudi Arabia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SA 2012 15+ aged general public, Saudi Arabia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SD 2009 15+ aged general public, Sudan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SD 2010 15+ aged general public, Sudan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SD 2012 15+ aged general public, Sudan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2012 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SE 2008 15+ aged general public, Sweden, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 67.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SE 2009 15+ aged general public, Sweden, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 66.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SE 2010 15+ aged general public, Sweden, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SE 2011 15+ aged general public, Sweden, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SE 2012 15+ aged general public, Sweden, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 68.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SG 2008 15+ aged general public, Singapore, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 46.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SG 2009 15+ aged general public, Singapore, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 29.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SA 2008 15+ aged general public, Saudi Arabia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2011 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SG 2011 15+ aged general public, Singapore, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RS 2010 15+ aged general public, Serbia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 11.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study QA 2011 15+ aged general public, Qatar, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 43.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study QA 2012 15+ aged general public, Qatar, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RO 2009 15+ aged general public, Romania, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 27.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RO 2010 15+ aged general public, Romania, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 25.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RO 2011 15+ aged general public, Romania, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 24.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RO 2012 15+ aged general public, Romania, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 21.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RS 2009 15+ aged general public, Serbia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 10.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RS 2011 15+ aged general public, Serbia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 13.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2009 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RS 2012 15+ aged general public, Serbia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 14.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RU 2008 15+ aged general public, Russia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 42.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RU 2009 15+ aged general public, Russia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RU 2010 15+ aged general public, Russia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 41.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RU 2011 15+ aged general public, Russia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 43.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RU 2012 15+ aged general public, Russia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 43.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2008 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 42.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SG 2010 15+ aged general public, Singapore, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 47.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SI 2009 15+ aged general public, Slovenia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TN 2011 15+ aged general public, Tunisia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TJ 2008 15+ aged general public, Tajikistan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TG 2008 15+ aged general public, Togo, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= -1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TG 2011 15+ aged general public, Togo, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 8.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TH 2008 15+ aged general public, Thailand, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 67.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TH 2009 15+ aged general public, Thailand, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 73.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TH 2010 15+ aged general public, Thailand, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 71.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TH 2011 15+ aged general public, Thailand, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 81.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TH 2012 15+ aged general public, Thailand, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 71.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TJ 2009 15+ aged general public, Tajikistan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SY 2012 15+ aged general public, Syria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= -24.020
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TJ 2010 15+ aged general public, Tajikistan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 45.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TJ 2011 15+ aged general public, Tajikistan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TJ 2012 15+ aged general public, Tajikistan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TM 2009 15+ aged general public, Turkmenistan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TM 2011 15+ aged general public, Turkmenistan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TM 2012 15+ aged general public, Turkmenistan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 46.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TN 2010 15+ aged general public, Tunisia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 47.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Swaziland, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SY 2011 15+ aged general public, Syria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 10.320
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SI 2010 15+ aged general public, Slovenia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 37.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2011 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 14.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SI 2011 15+ aged general public, Slovenia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 36.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SI 2012 15+ aged general public, Slovenia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 37.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SK 2010 15+ aged general public, Slovakia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 38.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SK 2011 15+ aged general public, Slovakia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SK 2012 15+ aged general public, Slovakia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2008 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 16.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2010 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 22.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SN 2008 15+ aged general public, Senegal, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 42.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SY 2010 15+ aged general public, Syria, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SN 2009 15+ aged general public, Senegal, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 52.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SN 2010 15+ aged general public, Senegal, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SN 2011 15+ aged general public, Senegal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SN 2012 15+ aged general public, Senegal, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 55.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SR 2012 15+ aged general public, Surinam, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SY 2008 15+ aged general public, Syria, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 27.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SY 2009 15+ aged general public, Syria, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 28.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KR 2010 15+ aged general public, Korea (South), 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KR 2008 15+ aged general public, Korea (South), 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2009 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2008 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 42.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2011 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 24.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2008 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2009 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2010 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 25.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2011 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 30.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2012 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 21.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2009 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2012 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2010 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2011 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2012 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 52.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2008 15+ aged general public, China, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 67.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2009 15+ aged general public, China, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2010 15+ aged general public, China, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2011 15+ aged general public, China, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 68.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2010 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 26.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2011 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2008 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2011 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2012 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 24.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2008 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 18.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2009 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 47.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2011 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2008 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2009 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2010 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2012 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 46.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2010 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 64.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2008 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 28.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2009 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2010 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2011 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 32.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2012 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2008 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 68.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2009 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2012 15+ aged general public, China, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 66.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2009 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2010 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 37.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2012 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2009 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 41.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2010 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2011 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2012 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 38.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2010 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2012 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2010 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2008 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2009 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2010 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2011 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.460
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2012 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DJ 2008 15+ aged general public, Djibouti, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DJ 2009 15+ aged general public, Djibouti, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 43.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2011 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 32.450
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2009 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 36.450
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2010 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2011 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.320
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2011 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 54.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2012 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 55.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2009 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2010 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 54.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2011 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2012 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2008 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 27.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2012 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 24.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2012 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2009 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 20.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2011 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2012 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2008 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2009 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 65.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2010 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 66.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2011 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2011 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 37.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2008 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 21.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2008 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2008 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 65.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2011 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2012 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2008 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2010 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2011 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2012 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2010 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 65.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2009 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 13.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2011 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 64.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2012 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 66.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2008 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2009 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 30.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2010 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 25.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 27.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2012 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 28.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2010 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 8.320
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2008 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 13.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2010 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 26.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2014 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2010 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2011 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2012 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2009 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 36.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2010 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2011 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 37.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2012 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Algeria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 29.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2012 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DZ 2012 15+ aged general public, Algeria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 37.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AO 2011 15+ aged general public, Angola, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 29.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AO 2012 15+ aged general public, Angola, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 25.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2008 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2009 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2010 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2011 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2009 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2011 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2012 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2011 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2012 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 37.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2009 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovnia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 18.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2010 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 10.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2011 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 27.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2012 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 20.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2008 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2010 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2012 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2010 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 41.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2008 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 55.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2009 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 55.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2010 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2011 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2012 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2010 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 30.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2011 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 26.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2011 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2009 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 42.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2012 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 20.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2011 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 27.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2008 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2009 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2010 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2011 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 45.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2012 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2009 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2010 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2012 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2008 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 38.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2008 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2010 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2011 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2012 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2008 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 28.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2011 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2012 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DJ 2011 15+ aged general public, Djibouti, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2009 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KG 2012 15+ aged general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2011 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2010 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 67.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2011 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 67.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2012 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2008 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 36.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2009 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 36.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2010 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 31.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2012 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2008 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 72.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2008 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 36.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2009 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2010 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 36.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2011 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2012 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 28.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2009 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 41.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JM 2011 15+ aged general public, Jamaica, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2009 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2012 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= -2.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2009 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2010 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2008 15+ aged general public, India, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 41.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2009 15+ aged general public, India, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 47.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2010 15+ aged general public, India, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 43.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2011 15+ aged general public, India, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 41.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2012 15+ aged general public, India, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2008 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.460
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2009 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 67.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2011 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2011 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= -6.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2012 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 66.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2008 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 27.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2011 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 21.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2012 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 8.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2008 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2009 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 11.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2010 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 11.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2008 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2010 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2008 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 72.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GB 2008 15+ aged general public, United Kingdom, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CH 2009 15+ aged general public, Switzerland, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CH 2012 15+ aged general public, Switzerland, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 68.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ES 2008 15+ aged general public, Spain, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ES 2009 15+ aged general public, Spain, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 41.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ES 2010 15+ aged general public, Spain, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 40.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ES 2011 15+ aged general public, Spain, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 38.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ES 2012 15+ aged general public, Spain, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 38.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GB 2009 15+ aged general public, United Kingdom, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AE 2011 15+ aged general public, United Arab Emirates, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 54.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GB 2010 15+ aged general public, United Kingdom, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 68.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GB 2011 15+ aged general public, United Kingdom, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 67.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GB 2012 15+ aged general public, United Kingdom, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 66.020
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KG 2008 15+ aged general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 47.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KG 2009 15+ aged general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KG 2010 15+ aged general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 52.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KG 2011 15+ aged general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AE 2012 15+ aged general public, United Arab Emirates, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 54.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AE 2010 15+ aged general public, United Arab Emirates, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 52.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2011 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KZ 2009 15+ aged general public, Kazakhstan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 54.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2012 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2008 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2009 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 38.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2010 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 29.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2011 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2012 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 21.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KZ 2008 15+ aged general public, Kazakhstan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KZ 2010 15+ aged general public, Kazakhstan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 54.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AE 2009 15+ aged general public, United Arab Emirates, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Kazakhstan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 54.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KZ 2012 15+ aged general public, Kazakhstan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 55.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2008 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.320
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2009 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2010 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 69.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2011 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2012 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2012 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 74.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2012 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2010 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2008 15+ aged general public, France, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 46.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2012 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2012 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2008 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2010 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2011 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2012 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.460
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2009 15+ aged general public, France, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 45.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2009 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.450
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2010 15+ aged general public, France, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 52.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2011 15+ aged general public, France, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2012 15+ aged general public, France, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2011 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 32.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2012 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 20.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2008 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 17.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2009 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 24.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2011 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2008 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 37.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2011 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 26.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2008 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 38.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2011 15+ aged general public, Domican Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2012 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 49.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2008 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 55.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2009 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2010 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2011 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2012 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2009 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 30.270
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2012 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 46.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2010 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 29.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2011 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 17.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2012 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 12.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2008 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2009 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2010 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2011 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2010 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 25.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2012 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 30.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2011 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 33.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2011 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 50.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2008 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 35.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2010 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 26.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2011 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 38.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2012 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 30.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2008 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2009 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 54.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2010 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2012 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 55.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2011 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 44.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2008 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 48.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2009 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 55.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2010 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 52.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2011 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2012 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2009 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 43.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2010 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 42.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2012 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2012 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 51.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2008 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 56.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2011 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 53.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2009 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2010 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2011 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 62.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2012 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 63.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2008 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 54.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2009 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 57.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2010 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 59.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2012 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2011 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 55.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2009 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 39.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2010 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 34.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2011 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 26.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2012 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 22.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2008 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 60.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2009 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 58.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2010 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 61.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2012 15+ aged general public, Cyprus-Turkish, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 30.380