Correlational finding on Happiness and Current total social participation
Subject code: S08ab

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelSocial integration
Page in Source 574
Our classificationCurrent total social participation, code S08ab
Operationalization
Number of roles beyond that of wife and mother: 
- paid worker
- club member
- religious member
- friend
- neighbor
- relative
Rated: yes/no
Observed distributionM = 4,11, SD = 1,05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.20 p < .001
Betas controlled for:
- age
- education
- husband's occupation (professional or not)
- life-cycle stage (chlid < 6 years or not)
- number of children
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.24 p < .001
Additional control for employment 
(paid work omitted from list of roles)
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Unaffected by interactions between
- roles/employment
- roles/ husband's occupation
- employment/husbands occupation
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Squared roles: To test for curvi-linearity life 
satisfaction was regressed on the square of the 
number of roles, controlling for individual and 
structural variables and number of roles
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
To assess whether the number of roles or one role 
in particular mattered most, each role was entered 
separately into a regression equation along with 
with the control variables and a summary measure 
of other roles. No single role proved 
statistically significant, while the contribution 
of the number of roles remained significant


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl