Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyMiller et al. (1991): study US 1956
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =356

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 574
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1= less than high school
2= high school
3= more then high school
Observed distributionHigh school graduate: 43 %; More than high school 37 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=-.02 ns
< High school (vs highschool)
M-CO---mq-v-3-aBeta=+.10 ns
>high school (vs high school)

Betas controlled for:
- age
- husband’s occupation (professional or not)
- life cycle stage (child < 6 or not)
- number of children

Unaffected by:
- number of roles
- Employment
- Interaction between:
  o Roles/employment
  o Roles/husband’s occupation
  o Employment/husband’s occupation


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-CO---mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A
How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you?
1 often
2 sometimes
3 hardly ever

B
All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today?
1 almost none
2 some
3 a good deal

C
On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today?
1 not very satisfied
2 fairly satisfied
3 very satisfied

Summation: A+B+C/3


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl