Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R12aa01a

StudyBell (1974): study US 1973
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelDisconfirmation of retirement expectations: associations
Page in Source 567
Our classificationEarlier attitudes to retirement, code R12aa01a
Operationalization
Difference between:
T1: pre-retirement expectations of hours spend in 
voluntary associations
T2: post-retirement report of hours spend in voluntary 
associations
Remarks
T1-T2 difference 1 year

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.06 p < .221
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .464
Direction of difference: Ss that spend more time 
with voluntary associations than expected did not 
get happier

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness

Negative in poor health category (r=-.21) and aged 
in poor health (r=-.39)
No correlation among healthy (r=.+.03)and older 
(r=+.08) Ss 
Positive in healthy and recent retired Ss (r=.23)


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today?'
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
(labels of response-options 2, 3 and 4 not reported)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl