### Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirementSubject code: R14ag

 Study Bell (1974): study US 1973 Title Cognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults. Source Journal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571 Public Males, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74 Sample Non-probability purposive-quota sample Non-Response 21% Respondents N = 114

 Correlate Author's label Disconfirmation of retirement expectations in family area Page in Source 566, 567 Our classification Attitudes to retirement, code R14ag Operationalization ```Difference between: T1: pre-retirement expectations of hours spend with family T2: post-retirement report of hours spend with family ``` Remarks ```T1-T2 1 year difference ```

 Observed Relation with Happiness HappinessMeasure Statistics Elaboration/Remarks O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-e r=-.25 p < .001 ```Degree of difference ``` O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-e r=-.23 p < .002 ```Direction of difference; Ss who spend more hours with family than expected became less happy. Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness Unaffected by age, income, health, SES and retirement duration ```

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
 Code Full Text O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-e Selfreport on single question:'On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today?'1 not satisfied at all2345 very satisfied(labels of response-options 2, 3 and 4 not reported)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
 Symbol Explanation r PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')Type: test statistic.Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metricRange: [-1; +1]Meaning:r = 0 « no correlation ,r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, andr = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl