Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to retirement
Subject code: R12ag

StudyBell (1974): study US 1973
TitleCognitive Dissonance and the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1974, Vol. 29, 564 - 571
PublicMales, shortly before and after retirement, USA 1973-74
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response21%
Respondents N =114

Correlate
Author's labelDisconfirmation of retirement expectations in family area
Page in Source 566, 567
Our classificationAttitudes to retirement, code R12ag
Operationalization
Difference between:
T1: pre-retirement expectations of hours spend with 
family
T2: post-retirement report of hours spend with family
Remarks
T1-T2 1 year difference

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.25 p < .001
Degree of difference
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-er=-.23 p < .002
Direction of difference; Ss who spend more hours 
with family than expected became less happy.

Correlations with T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness
Unaffected by age, income, health, SES and 
retirement duration


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLL-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today?'
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5 very satisfied
(labels of response-options 2, 3 and 4 not reported)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl