Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H04ab01a

StudyHeadey & Krause (1994): study AU 1981
TitleInequalities of Income, Health and Happiness: The Stratification Paradigm and Alternatives.
SourcePaper presented at the 13th World Congress of Sociology, 1994, Bielefeld, Germany
Public18-65 aged, general public, Victoria, Australia, followed from 1981 to 1989
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =502

Correlate
Author's labelLife satisfaction over time
Page in Source 47, 48
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H04ab01a
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question asked twice
'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1  terrible
2  very unhappy
3  unhappy
4  mostly dissatisfied
5  mixed feelings
6  mostly satisfied
7  pleased
8  very pleased
9  delighted
Assessed at T1 (1981), T2 (1983), T3 (1985) and T5 
(1989)
Error EstimatesCorrelations of responses on same item at beginning and end of the interview: r=+.80

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.64 p < .05
T1 happines by T2 happines: raw correlation
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.70 p < .05
T1 happines by T2 happines: disattenuated r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.47 p < .05
T1 happiness by T3 happiness: raw r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.49 p < .05
T1 happiness by T3 happiness: disattenuated r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.44 p < .05
T1 happiness by T4 happiness: raw r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.45 p < .05
T1 happiness by T4 happiness: disattenuated r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.47 p < .05
T1 happiness by T5 happiness: raw r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-ar=+.49 p < .05
T1 happiness by T5 happiness: disattenuated r
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-a
Disattenuated correlations were obtained assuming 
a validity of 0.8
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aD%=
QUINTILE TRANSITION MATRIX 1981 - 1989:
Life Satisfaction     Life Satisfaction 1989   
1981               Q1    Q2    Q3    Q4    Q5
-----------------------------------------------
Q1                50.0% 27.3% 12.1%  7.6%  3.0%
Q2                28.8% 26.3% 23.8% 12.5%  8.8%
Q3                10.5% 31.4% 20.9% 29.1%  8.1%
Q4                12.0% 14.7% 26.7% 22.7% 24.0%
Q5                10.8%  8.4% 12.0% 16.9% 51.8%


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-DT-u-sqt-v-9-aSelfreport on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1 terrible
2 very unhappy
3 unhappy
4 mostly dissatisfied
5 mixed feelings
6 mostly satisfied
7 pleased
8 very pleased
9 delighted


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl