Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to personal contacts
Subject code: S06ac

StudySmits et al. (1995): study NL 1992
TitleWell-being and control in older persons: The prediction of well-being from control measures.
SourceIntenational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1995, Vol. 40, 237 - 251
DOIDOI: 10.2190/JH5F-2XWH-Y101-7EWF
PublicElderly, Sassenheim, the Netherlands, 1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response24,4%
Respondents N =119

Correlate
Author's labelsocial inadequacy
Page in Source 242, 245, 246
Our classificationAttitudes to personal contacts, code S06ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 items. 
Typical item: "I am shy in the company of strangers."
Observed distributionM= 7,92 (sd= 4,57)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha= .77
Remarks
Data available for 76 Ss, only 30 in multiple 
regression alalysis.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gr=-.41
positive affect = -.27 (05)
negative affect = -.34 (05)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gBeta=-.21 ns
Beta controlled for:
- gender
- sense of coherence
- neuroticism
- mastery


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-gSelfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?"
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
1 never
2 sometimes
3 often
4 very often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -15 to +15

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (adapted version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl