Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier inner-control
Subject code: P02ab16

StudyPalmore (1981): study US 1968
TitleSocial Patterns in Normal Aging: Findings From the Duke Longitudinal Study.
SourceDuke University Press, 1981, Durham, USA
Public46+ aged whites, North Carolina, USA, followed from 1968 to 1976.
SampleProbability stratified sample
Respondents N =375

Author's labelT1 internal control
Page in Source 103
Our classificationEarlier inner-control, code P02ab16
Index containing four pairs of statements e,g, "some of 
the good and some of the bad things in my life have 
happened by chance" (external control).
"What happened to me has been my own doing" (internal 
Each S was asked which one of each pair is more true 
for him.
(from the Internal-External Control of Reinforcement 
Scale; see Jesson at al. (1968).
0= external
1= internal
Scale 0-4.
Assessed at T1.
Observed distributionMales : M = 2,6: SD = 1,0 Females: M = 2,2; SD = 1,0

Observed Relation with Happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+ p < .05
T1 internal control by T2 happiness
Males  : r =      (ns)
Females: r = +.14 (05)
Males  : r =      (ns)
Females: r = +.19 (05)

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A Particularly interested in or excited about something
B Pleased about having accomplished something
C On top of the world
D Pity for some people you know
E Helpless, with no control over situations
F Bored
G Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
H Angry about something that usually wouldn't bother you

Rating options:
0 never
1 once
2 several times
3 often

Summation: Factorially derived clusters:
A+B+C+D (Enhancement)
E+F+G+H (Discomfort)
Affect Balance Score: Enhancement minus Discomfort.

Possible range: + 16 to - 16

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance scale' (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.