### Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier inner-controlSubject code: P02ab16

 Study Palmore (1981): study US 1968 Title Social Patterns in Normal Aging: Findings From the Duke Longitudinal Study. Source Duke University Press, 1981, Durham, USA Public 46+ aged whites, North Carolina, USA, followed from 1968 to 1976. Sample Probability stratified sample Non-Response Respondents N = 375

 Correlate Author's label T1 internal control Page in Source 103 Our classification Earlier inner-control, code P02ab16 Operationalization ```Index containing four pairs of statements e,g, "some of the good and some of the bad things in my life have happened by chance" (external control). "What happened to me has been my own doing" (internal control). Each S was asked which one of each pair is more true for him. (from the Internal-External Control of Reinforcement Scale; see Jesson at al. (1968). 0= external 1= internal Scale 0-4. Assessed at T1. ``` Observed distribution Males : M = 2,6: SD = 1,0 Females: M = 2,2; SD = 1,0

 Observed Relation with Happiness HappinessMeasure Statistics Elaboration/Remarks C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ca r=+ p < .05 ```T1 internal control by T2 happiness Males : r = (ns) Females: r = +.14 (05) ``` A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-b r=+ ```Males : r = (ns) Females: r = +.19 (05) ```

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
 Code Full Text A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-b Selfreport on 8 questions:"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"A Particularly interested in or excited about somethingB Pleased about having accomplished somethingC On top of the worldD Pity for some people you knowE Helpless, with no control over situationsF BoredG Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing whyH Angry about something that usually wouldn't bother youRating options:0 never1 once2 several times3 oftenSummation: Factorially derived clusters:A+B+C+D (Enhancement)E+F+G+H (Discomfort)Affect Balance Score: Enhancement minus Discomfort.Possible range: + 16 to - 16Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance scale' (modified version) C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ca Selfreport on single question:Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?[ 9 ] best possible life for you[ 8 ][ 7 ][ 6 ][ 5 ][ 4 ][ 3 ][ 2 ][ 1 ][ 0 ] worst possible life for youName: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
 Symbol Explanation r PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')Type: test statistic.Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metricRange: [-1; +1]Meaning:r = 0 « no correlation ,r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, andr = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl