Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier physical health
Subject code: H14aa01

StudyPalmore (1981): study US 1968
TitleSocial Patterns in Normal Aging: Findings From the Duke Longitudinal Study.
SourceDuke University Press, 1981, Durham, USA
Public46+ aged whites, North Carolina, USA, followed from 1968 to 1976.
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =375

Correlate
Author's labelT1 self rated health
Page in Source 103/4
Our classificationEarlier physical health, code H14aa01
Operationalization
Direct question rated on a 10-point self-anchoring 
scale (based on Cantril, 1965) with the bottom of the 
ladder (zero) representing the most serious illness and 
the top of the ladder (9) representing perfect health.
Assessed at T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-car=+.30 p < .05
T1 self-rating health by T2 happiness
Males:   r = +.30 (05)
Females: r = +.20 (05)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-cab=+ p < .05
Males    B = +.26
Females: B = +.20
Control variables not reported
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-br=+. p < .05
Males:   r = +.24 (05)
Females: r = +.35 (05)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-bb=+. p < .05
Males:   B = +.57 (05)
Females: B = +.87 (05)
Control variables not reported

T1 health predicts T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness in 
both males and females


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-bSelfreport on 8 questions:

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A Particularly interested in or excited about something
B Pleased about having accomplished something
C On top of the world
D Pity for some people you know
E Helpless, with no control over situations
F Bored
G Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
H Angry about something that usually wouldn't bother you

Rating options:
0 never
1 once
2 several times
3 often



Summation: Factorially derived clusters:
A+B+C+D (Enhancement)
E+F+G+H (Discomfort)
Affect Balance Score: Enhancement minus Discomfort.

Possible range: + 16 to - 16

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance scale' (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl