Correlational finding on Happiness and Life-stress inventories
Subject code: L04ag01

StudyOrmel (1980): study NL 1970
TitleMoeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
SourceKonstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands
URLhttp://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub1980s/84c-ch3-fulln.pdf
Public15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Non-Response18%
Respondents N =296

Correlate
Author's labelPsycho-social burdens
Page in Source 350,220,31
Our classificationLife-stress inventories, code L04ag01
Operationalization
Major prolonged burdening problems as assessed in a 
structured interview.
1. Strictly personal problems like
   strong feelings of loneliness, fear,
   depression or inferiority.
2. Interpersonal problems like
   unsatisfactory sexual relation with
   partner or permanent quarrels with
   neighbours.
3. Health problems like chronic heart-
   disease or prolonged revalidation.
4. Housing problems like too little
   space or bad condition of the house.
5. Problems in the jobsituation like 
   too much overtime, working in shifts
   or doing work for which got no
   training.
6. Financial problems like high
   mortgage rates or having to pay
   off debts.
7. Abnormal behaviour like alcoholism.
   or problems with the law. 
Problems were scored for burdeningness on a 7-point 
scale by an expert-panel on the basis of 
interview-protocols. Social and economic background of 
the Ss were taken into account.

Problems were separated into two categories, according 
to the origin of the burden.
a SELF INDUCED BURDENS
- The event or the problem is caused
  by a voluntary action of the
  subject, like marriage or buying a
  house.
- The event is caused by evident
  inadequate psychic functioning like
  a road accident caused by careless
  driving.  
b EXTERNALLY INDUCED BURDENS
  The event or the problem is not
  caused by voluntary action of the
  subject like death of a family-
  member.
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.43 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.45 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.22
T2 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens.
L path coefficient in a LISREL model, also 
involving neuroticism, selfesteem, internal 
control, intimacy with partner, adequacy of coping 
and externally-induced burdens. 
Self-induced burdens are related to:
- Adequacy of coping (L=-.40), which on its turn
  is related to internal control (L=+.15), self-
  esteem(L=+.16) and neuroticism (L=-.18).
- Intimacy with partner (L=-.24),which on its
  turn is related to internal control (L=+.13)
  and neuroticism (L=-.23).
- Neuroticism (L=+.33) 
- Internal control (L=-.22)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.39
T2 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens.
Simplified LISREL model (omitting intimacy and 
adequacy of coping)
                                              
EXTERNALLY INDUCED BURDENS

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.21 p < .01
T2 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cr=-.23 p < .01
T3 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.15
T2 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens.
L path coefficient in a LISREL model, also 
involving neuroticism, selfesteem, internal 
control, intimacy with partner, adequacy of coping 
and self-induced burdens. 
Externally induced burdens are related to internal 
control (L=-.28)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cL=-.21
T2 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens
Simplified model(ommitting intimacy and adequacy 
of coping)


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-cSelfreport on 8 questions:

" In the past few weeks did you ever feel.....?"
A Pleased about having accomplished something
B Upset because someone critized you
C Proud because someone complimented you one something you had done
D That things are going your way
E So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
F Unhappy or depressed
G Particularly interested in something
H Lonely and remote from other people

Response options:
0 not at all
1 sometimes
2 often
3 very often

Scoring: a = 0..........d = 3

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, D, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, E, F, H
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (variant)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
ZZZZZPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl