Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived happiness career
Subject code: H04aa

StudyBortner & Hultsch (1974): study US 1959
TitlePatterns of Subjective Deprivation in Adulthood.
SourceDevelopmental Psychology, 1974, Vol. 10, 534 - 545
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
Sample
Non-Response17% incomplete information
Respondents N =1294

Correlate
Author's labelType of deprivation
Page in Source 539
Our classificationPerceived happiness career, code H04aa
Operationalization
Ss were classified on the basis of present-self, 
past-self and future-self ratings using the Cantril 
(1965) question on "best possible life".
(See CANTR 1965)

TD  temporary deprivation:
    present lower than past: future
    higher than present

CD  continuous deprivation:
    present lower than past: future
    lower than present

GED great expectative deprivation:
    present higher than past: future 
    higher than present

SND Stereotyped non-deprivation:
    present higher than past: future
    slightly higher than present

AD  anticipatory deprivation:
    present higher than past: future
    lower than present.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-aDM= +
Non-significant differences between TD and CD, 
between CD and GED and between SND and AD. Other 
differences are significant (05). 
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aDM= +
Non-significant differences between TD and CD, and 
between GED, SND and AD. Other differences are 
significant (05).


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate yourself as to how successful or unsuccessful you have been in terms of achieving your own goals and aims in life? Think of the top of the ladder as being completely successful, the bottom being entirely unsuccessful
[ 10 ] completely successful
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely unsuccessful
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question :

"Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at this ladder (again). Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life would be at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the present stage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?"
[ 10 ] entirely satisfied
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] entirely dissatisfied

Name Cantril ladder rating (modified version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl