Correlational finding on Happiness and Young versus old
Subject code: A04ab01

StudyPalmore (1975): study ZZ East-West pairs 1959
TitleThe Honorable Elders: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Aging in Japan.
SourceDuke University Press, 1975, Durham, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, Japan and USA, 1959-1962
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Respondents N =2521

Author's labelAge
Our classificationYoung versus old, code A04ab01
0  21-64
1  65+

Observed Relation with Happiness
Japan   0: Mt = 5.2
        1: Mt = 5.2
USA     0:  Mt = 6.6
        1:  Mt = 6.5

Eldery Japanese perceived to become more happy 
when growing old, while US eldery perceive a 
slight decline. Scores for past, present and 
future happiness among 65+ aged are respectively 
4.9, 5.2, 5.9 in Japan and 6.9, 6.5, 6.6 in the 

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-9-bSelfreport on single question:

Respondent was first asked to describe "your wishes and hopes for your future" and then to describe "your fears and worries about your future". He was then presented with a picture of a ladder numbered from zero on the bottom to nine on the top rung. Respondent was asked to suppose "that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst life for you". Where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the present time?"
[ 9 ] best possible life
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Name: Cantril's Present Life Ladder rating (modified version)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.