Correlational finding on Happiness and Married state (compared to non-married states)
Subject code: M02aa

StudyDavis (1984): study US 1972
TitleNew Money, an Old Man/Lady and Two's Company: Subjective Welfare in the NORC General Social Surveys 1972-1982.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 319 - 350.
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351443
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13581

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 330
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states), code M02aa
Operationalization
0 not married
1 married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+.69 p < .05
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=+.45 p < .05
% very happy
married  41
widow    23
single   22
divorced 19
The relationship remains sizable after control for 
recent financial change, race, household size and 
social participation (memberships, frequency of 
social contacts and visits to bars and taverns). 
The lower happiness of the ex-married is partly 
explained by recent decrease in income. Change in 
average happiness in the USA from 1973 to 1982 can 
partly be explained by a drop in % marrieds and a 
consequent rise in % decrease in income.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl