Correlational finding on Happiness and Later socio-economic status
Subject code: S09aa03

StudyAndrews (1991): study US 1980
TitleStability and Change in Levels and Structure of Subjective Well-Being: USA 1972 and 1988.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1991, Vol. 25, 1 - 30
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00727649
PublicAdults, general public, USA, 1972-1988
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2985

Correlate
Author's labelSocioeconomic status
Page in Source 24-25
Our classificationLater socio-economic status, code S09aa03
Operationalization
Respondents were assigned to one of five status 
categories based on their education and income: low, 
low/medium, medium, medium/high, high.

Respondents with inconsistent combinations of income 
and education were excluded from the analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aDMt=+
socioeconomic    happiness (Ms')    change (DMt')
status:           1972   1988         1972-1988
low                7.2    7.3              +0.1 
low/medium         7.3    7.8              +0.5
medium             7.5    8.0              +0.5 
medium/high        7.7    8.3              +0.6
high               7.8    8.3              +0.5
Happiness scores rated on 1-7 point scale. Means 
transformed to 0-10 scale (Ms')


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl