Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with standard of living
Subject code: I01af05e

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelMaterial satisfaction
Page in Source 27,49,T53
Our classificationSatisfaction with standard of living, code I01af05e
Operationalization
Five item index of direct questions on material 
satisfaction during the last 14 days. The summed scores 
were divided into 3 strata, i.e. low, medium and high

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .05
All
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-ar=+.36 p < .05
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aBeta=+.20 p < .05
ß controlled for: satisfaction with physical 
health, satisfaction with partner, satisfaction 
with selfrealisation, satisfaction with social 
involvement, satisfaction with work (positive), 
satisfaction with work (negative), and 
satisfaction with leisure time.
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.19 p < .05
                  
                 
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.19
- with partner, with work
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.23
- with partner, without work
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- no partner, with work
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.18
- no partner, without work
           
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.25
- Age < 25
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.28
- Age 26-40
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.15
- Age 41-59
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- Age > 60
             
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.22
- < 6.000 income
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.22
- 6.000-10.000
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.19
- 10.000-16.000
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- > 16.000
        
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=*
- monotonous work
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.19
- some selfcontrol
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.24
- much selfcontrol
          
ß's controlled for: satisfaction with other 
domains of life: physical health, partner, 
selfrealisation, social involvement, work, 
leisure. * Means: N too small.
                         
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.21
Retired 60+ aged only.
In the subgroup of retired ß was controlled for: 
psychosomatic symptoms, satisfaction with health, 
and satisfaction with partner.
     

O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.20
Housewives, married, no job, aged <60 only.
In the subgroup of housewives ß was controlled 
for: professional status of husband, communication 
with relatives, satisfaction with health, and 
satisfaction with partner.
          
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.24
Pensioners, living alone only.
In the subgroup of pensioners ß was controlled for 
satisfaction with physical health.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-AO-c-mq-*-0-aSelfreport on 4 questions:

A For the past five years, how much have you accomplished of what you planned in your life?
1 completely failed
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely accomplished
B How much are you satisfied with your life as a whole these days?
1 completely dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
C How much do you enjoy your life these days?
3 a great deal
2 a fair amount
1 not very much
D How happy have you been for the past five years?
1 completely unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely happy

Summation: % positive answers

Response options A, D and C not reported in full detail
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl