Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical handicap
Subject code: H02ab01c

StudySchulz & Decker (1985): study US 1985
TitleLongterm Adjustment to Physical Disability: The Role of Social Support, Perceived Control and Self-Blame.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 1162 - 1172
Public40+ aged, spinal-cord-injured, non-institutionalised, Portland Oregon, USA, 198?
Respondents N =100

Author's labelDisabled
Page in Source table 1
Our classificationPhysical handicap, code H02ab01c
1 Disabled:
  40+ aged spinal cord-injured with 
  paraplegia or quadriplegia (complete
  and incomplete) in stable disease 
  state. Non-institutionalized, most 
  married. Average time since injury
  20 years.
0 Normals:
  18+ aged USA (Data BERKM 1971)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Disabled: M = 3,23   Mt'= 5.0
Normals : M = 3.96   Mt'= 5.4

The distribution of happiness (affect) is similar 
in both groups, but the frequencies in the most 
happy range are smaller among the handicapped.
The authors presented happiness on scale 1-7 with 
1 denoting the highest happiness level, while in 
the WDH 1 marks the lowest level of happiness. 
Hence the scores were reversed by the WDH-team and 
the M presented above was calculated accordingly 
from the frequency distribution on table 1
Ms' 0 unhappy- 10 happy

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

"Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?"
A Very lonely or remote from other people
B Depressed or very unhappy
C Bored
D So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
E Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
F On top of the world
G Particularly excited or interested in something
H Pleased about having accomplished something

Answer options:
0 never
1 sometimes
3 often
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on F, G, H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A, B, C, D, E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -15 to +9
Transformed to a 7 point scale, where 1 is all or almost all positive feelingfs and 7 is all or almost all negartive feelings.
1 = neg 0-1 and pos 7-9
2 = neg 0-1 and pos 4-6
2 = neg 2-3 and pos 7-9
3 = neg 0-1 and pos 3
3 = neg 2-3 and pos 4-6
3 = neg 4-5 and pos 7-9
4 = neg 0-1 and pos 0-2
4 = neg 2-3 and pos 3
4 = neg 4-5 and pos 4-6
4 = neg 6-15 and pos 7-9
5 = neg 2-3 and pos 0-2
5 = neg 4-5 and pos 3
5 = neg 6-15 and pos 4-6
6 = neg 4-5 and pos 0-2
6 = neg 6-15 and pos 3
7 = neg 6-15 and pos 0-2

Name: Berkman modified variation of Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale'

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.