Correlational finding on Happiness and Physical handicap
Subject code: H02ab01c

StudySchulz & Decker (1985): study US 1985
TitleLongterm Adjustment to Physical Disability: The Role of Social Support, Perceived Control and Self-Blame.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 1162 - 1172
Public40+ aged, spinal-cord-injured, non-institutionalised, Portland Oregon, USA, 198?
Sample
Non-Response4%
Respondents N =100

Correlate
Author's labelDisabled
Page in Source table 1
Our classificationPhysical handicap, code H02ab01c
Operationalization
1 Disabled:
  40+ aged spinal cord-injured with 
  paraplegia or quadriplegia (complete
  and incomplete) in stable disease 
  state. Non-institutionalized, most 
  married. Average time since injury
  20 years.
0 Normals:
  18+ aged USA (Data BERKM 1971)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aDM=-
Disabled: M = 3,23   Mt'= 5.0
Normals : M = 3.96   Mt'= 5.4

The distribution of happiness (affect) is similar 
in both groups, but the frequencies in the most 
happy range are smaller among the handicapped.
The authors presented happiness on scale 1-7 with 
1 denoting the highest happiness level, while in 
the WDH 1 marks the lowest level of happiness. 
Hence the scores were reversed by the WDH-team and 
the M presented above was calculated accordingly 
from the frequency distribution on table 1
Ms' 0 unhappy- 10 happy


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-u-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 8 questions:

"Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?"
A Very lonely or remote from other people
B Depressed or very unhappy
C Bored
D So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
E Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why
F On top of the world
G Particularly excited or interested in something
H Pleased about having accomplished something

Answer options:
0 never
1 sometimes
3 often
Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on F, G, H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A, B, C, D, E
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range -15 to +9
Transformed to a 7 point scale, where 1 is all or almost all positive feelingfs and 7 is all or almost all negartive feelings.
1 = neg 0-1 and pos 7-9
2 = neg 0-1 and pos 4-6
2 = neg 2-3 and pos 7-9
3 = neg 0-1 and pos 3
3 = neg 2-3 and pos 4-6
3 = neg 4-5 and pos 7-9
4 = neg 0-1 and pos 0-2
4 = neg 2-3 and pos 3
4 = neg 4-5 and pos 4-6
4 = neg 6-15 and pos 7-9
5 = neg 2-3 and pos 0-2
5 = neg 4-5 and pos 3
5 = neg 6-15 and pos 4-6
6 = neg 4-5 and pos 0-2
6 = neg 6-15 and pos 3
7 = neg 6-15 and pos 0-2

Name: Berkman modified variation of Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale'


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl