Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: H13ac04a

StudyLichter et al. (1980): study NZ 1976
TitleIncreasing Happiness through Cognitive Retraining.
SourceNew Zealand Psychologist, 1980, Vol. 9, 57 - 64
URLhttp://www.psychology.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/PSYCH-Vol92-1980-2-Lichter.pdf
PublicPsychology students, followed 2 weeks, University of Otago New Zealand, 1976
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48

Correlate
Author's labelBeck Depression Inventory
Page in Source 63
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code H13ac04a
Operationalization
Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-br=-.72 p < .01
Happiness assessed at T1


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BK-u-mq-v-5-bSelfreport on 48 questions:

Over this period I have had the feeling: (Timeframe chosen by subjects: mostly past few weeks)
A Nothing goes right with me
B I feel close to people around me
C I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D I feel my life is on the right track
E I feel loved and trusted
F My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G I don't like myself
H I feel very tense
I I feel life isn't worth living
J I am content with myself
K My past life is filled with failure
L Everything I do seems worthwhile
M I can't be bothered doing anything
N I feel I can do whatever I want to
O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
them
P Everything is going right for me
Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
people
R I'm easy going
S I seem to bee left alone when I don't want to be
T I wish I could change some parts of my life
U I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V The future looks good
W I become very lonely
X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y I feel out of place
Z I think clearly and creatively
AA I feel alone
AB I feel free and easy
AC I smile and laugh a lot
AD I feel things are going my way
AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG I feel like hiding away
AH I feel confident about decisions I make
AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ I feel other people like me
AK I feel like a failure
AL I feel I'm a complete person
AM I'm not sure I'm done the right thing
AN My future looks good
AO I'm making the most out of my life
AP Everything is going right for me
AQ I feel unimportant
AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

Answer options:
0 not at all
1 occasionally
2 some of the time
3 often
4 all of the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version period unspecified


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl