Correlational finding on Happiness and Christian orthodoxy
Subject code: R12ab03a

StudyHunsberger (1985): study CA 1982
TitleReligion, Age, Life Satisfaction and Perceived Sources of Religiousness: A Study of Older Persons.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1985, Vol. 40, 615 - 620
Public65+ aged, general public, Ontario Canada, 1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =85

Correlate
Author's labelChristian orthodoxy
Page in Source 619
Our classificationChristian orthodoxy, code R12ab03a
Operationalization
24-item Christian Orthodoxy Scale
(Fullerton and Hunsberger, 1982);
answers were rated on a scale from  
-3 to +3 (strongly disagree to strongly agree). Keying 
of all negatively-worded items is reversed.
Typical items are:
1.  God exists as: Father, Son and Holy
    Spirit.
4.  The Bible is the word of God given
    to guide man to grace and 
    salvation.
8.  The Bible may be an important book
    of moral teaching, but it was no 
    more inspired by God than were many
    other such books in the history of
    Man.
9.  The concept of God is an old 
    superstition that is no longer 
    needed to explain things in the
    modern era.
16. Despite what many people believe,
    there is no such thing as a God who
    is aware of Man's actions.
21. There is a God who is concerned
    with everyone's actions. 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aer=+.18 p < .05
O-SLC-c-sq-lg-21-aDM=+
Present happiness (as rated on the life chart) is
rated higher by high orthodox than by low 
orthodox. 
Earlier happiness (as rated on the same chart) is 
also rated higher by high orthodox than by low 
orthodox.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aeSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things into account, how happy would you say you are these days?
1 not too happy
2 moderately happy
3 very happy
O-SLC-c-sq-lg-21-aSelfreport on life graph:

Ss indicated their happiness on a graph, with 10-year time intervals and a happiness scale ranging from +10 (very happy to -10 (very unhappy)
The last years rating serves as a measure of present happiness
20 | + 10 very happy
19 |
18
17 |
16 |
15
14 |
13 |
12 |
11 | 0 neutral
10 |
9 |
8 |
7 |
6 |
5 |
4 |
3 |
2 |
1 | -10 very unhappy
______________________________________
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 year


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl