Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyAndrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response26%
Respondents N =1433

Correlate
Author's labelSocial economic status
Page in Source 141,323
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Combination of family income and the educational 
attainment of the family head:
1. both low
2.  intermediate level
3.        ,,
4.        ,,
5. both high

a  relatively low income and relatively
    high education
b relatively high income and 
    relatively low education

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aDMt=+
1. (low)    M=4.8   Mt'=4.8
2.          M=5.1   Mt'=5.1
3.          M=5.4   Mt'=5.5
4.          M=5.9   Mt'=6.1
5. (high)   M=6.2   Mt'=6.5

a           M=5.3   Mt'=5.4
b           M=5.7   Mt'=5.9
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aDMt=+
1. (low)    M=5.4   Mt'=5.5
2.          M=5.8   Mt'=6.0
3.          M=5.9   Mt'=6.1
4.          M=6.3   Mt'=6.6
5. (high)   M=6.7   Mt'=7.1

a           M=5.7   Mt'=5.9
b           M=6.2   Mt'=6.5
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aE=+.24
1. (low)    M=5.0   Mt'=6.7
2.          M=5.3   Mt'=7.2
3.          M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
4.          M=5.5   Mt'=7.5
5. (high)   M=5.7   Mt'=7.8

a           M=5.2   Mt'=7.0
b           M=5.4   Mt'=7.3
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.23
 controlled for sociodemographic variables (age, 
family income, education, race, sex).
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.12
 additionally controlled for 7 criterion 
satisfactions:
- amount of fun
- physical needs met
- yourself
- how fairly treated
- interesting daily life
- adjust to changes
- financial security
- develop oneself


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have


Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-aSelfreport on single question:

"Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?"
(circles not reproduced here )
8 + + + + + + + +
7 + + + + + + + -
6 + + + + + + - -
5 + + + + + - - -
4 + + + + - - - -
3 + + + - - - - -
2 + + - - - - - -
2 + - - - - - - -
0 - - - - - - - -

Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
ECORRELATION RATIO (Elsewhere sometimes called h or ETA)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal or ordinal, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning: correlate is accountable for E x 100 % of the variation in happiness.
E = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
E = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables an exact prediction of the happiness rating
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl