Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H04ab02

StudyFordyce (1983): study US 1980 /2
TitleA Program to Increase Happiness: Further Studies.
SourceJournal of Counseling Psychology, 1983, Vol. 30, 483 - 498
DOIDOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.30.4.483
PublicStudent participants in a happiness training, USA 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =57

Correlate
Author's labelProgram to increase personal happiness
Page in Source 487
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H04ab02
Operationalization
In the context of a regular course, students were 
introduced in the science of happiness and presented a 
brief overview of the '14 fundamentals', which program 
was presented as 'new information on happiness 
self-help resulting from research'

1  TREANTMENT: Extra exposure
1a  FULL instruction:Students were additionally given 
detailed instruction in each of the 14 fundamentals and 
were stimulated to practice these behaviors on a daily 
basis.
1b PARTIAL instruction in only 4 fundamentals on which 
they scored low at pre-test
  - personality
  - attitudes
 - life-style
  
0: CONTROL: No additional exposure
Remarks
The '14 fundamental' behaviours are:
- keep busy
- spend more time socializing
- beproductive at meaningful work
-get better organized and plam
-stop worrying
- lower your expectations
- develop positive thinking
- become present oriented
- work on a healthy personality
- develop an outgoing social personality
- be yourself
- eliminate negative feeling and problems
- close relations are number one for happiness
- put happiness as your number one priority

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aDM=+ p < .01
Happiness LEVEL at                    CHANGE
                 T1   T2   T3   T4 `  T4-1
Treatment: 
- Full           6,77 6,53 7,51 7,55  +0,78(01)
- Partial
  - personality  6,77 6,59 7,64 7,39  +0,62(01)
  - attitudes    6,77 6,69 7,55 7,94  +1,17(01)
  - life-style   6,77 6,88 7,86 8,01  +1,24(01)
Control          6,77 6,49 5,69 5,39  -1,38
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aD%sr=+ p < .01
Difference in change between full treatment and 
controls is +21.6% at T4

T1 = pre treatment
T4 = at the end of 6 weeks treatment
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aDM=+ p < .01
Treatment:
- Full           31.3         50.9   +19.6 .01 
- Partial        
  -personality   31.3         51.3   +20.0 .01
  -attitudes     31.3         54.5   +23.2 .01
  -life style    31.3         64.5   +33.2 .01
Control          31.3          5.4   -26.1  ns
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aD%sr=+ p < .01
Difference in change between full treatment and 
controls is +46.1% at T4


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aSelfreport on single question:

." In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel....?"
Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9 very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3 mildly unhappy (just a little low)
2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Fordyce Happiness Scale
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

"What percentage of the time would you say you are....?" (Percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Computation: Net Time Happy (NTH) % time happy - % time unhappy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
D%srDIFFERENCE in % of SCALE RANGE
Scale range = highest theoretical value minus lowest theoretical value
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl