Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual changes in happiness
Subject code: H04ab02

StudySheldon et al. (2013): study US Missouri 2011
TitleVariety is the Spice of Happiness: The Hedonic Adaptation Prevention Model.
SourceDavid, S. A.; Boniwell, I.; Ayers, A. C.; Eds: "The Oxford Handbook of Happiness", Oxford University Press, 2013, Oxford, UK, 901 - 914
DOIdoi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199557257.013.0067
PublicStudents actively participating in happiness training, USA, 201?
SampleNon-probability self-selected
Non-Response
Respondents N =79

Correlate
Author's labelActivity change or circumstance change intervention
Page in Source 908-909
Our classificationActual changes in happiness, code H04ab02
Operationalization
T1: After baseline assessment students were randomly 
assisgned to two treatments.

A. ACTIVITY CHANGE GROUP. Participants were asked to 
attempt something which might influence their mood. 
Then they were asked to identify a goal or activity 
change they could make during the next two weeks

B: CIRCUMSTANCE CHANGE GROUP. Participants were asked 
to attempt something which might influence their mood. 
Then they were asked to identify a circumstance they 
could change.

T2:. Participants completed questionnaires immediately 
after identifying the goals.

T3: After two weeks participants were asked whether 
they actually made the change they said they would 
make. If yes, the students were asked to rate the 
variety of their change. Lead item: To what extent is 
the change something that varies over time, i.e. 
something that adds variety to your life? Rated 1 = not 
at all to 5  = very much. In both groups only 
participants who really made the change were included 
in the analyses.

			Because there were no differences in outcomes 
between the groups, analyses were performed for both 
groups together	.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-dDM=+ p < .s/ns
Happiness LEVEL         Happiness CHANGE
T1    T2    T3           T2-T1      T3-T1
1.42  1.71  1.51        +0.29(.01)  +0.09 (ns)
A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-dD%sr=+ p < .s/ns
                         +3,6%     +1,1% (ns)

Happiness assessed at:
T1: baseline
T2: immediately after identifying goals
T3: 2 weeks after identifying goals
A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-db=+.19 p < .05
Participants who enacted their change with greater 
variety were more succesful at maintaining at T3 
the initial boost of happiness (T2)

T2: immediately after identifying goals
T3: 2 weeks after identifying goals


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-dSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past week?:
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past week' version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
D%srDIFFERENCE in % of SCALE RANGE
Scale range = highest theoretical value minus lowest theoretical value
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl