Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ac01a

StudyReinhardt (1968): study US 1967
TitleCharacteristics of Moods in Hospitalized and Normally Functioning Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Colombia University, 1968, USA
PublicFemale mental patients and controls, USA, 1967
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Respondents N =20

Author's labelpatients vs normals
Page in Source 12
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ac01a
1: Female patients living in private mental hospital
0: Normal controls: Women attending institutions for 
higher education
Observed distributionN= 1: 20; 2: 58

Observed Relation with Happiness
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bDM=- p < .01
Average level of daily moods in: 
          patients   non-patients   difference
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bDM=- p < .01
Highest (9-10) 6.43       7.28          -0.85
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bDM=- p < .01
Average(3-8)   5.49       6.23          -0.72
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bDM=- p < .05
Lowest(1-2)    4.45       5.07          -0.52

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely 'blue'
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.