Correlational finding on Happiness and Involved in schooling or not
Subject code: S01ac01a

StudyReinhardt (1968): study US 1967
TitleCharacteristics of Moods in Hospitalized and Normally Functioning Women.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, Colombia University, 1968, USA
PublicFemale mental patients and controls, USA, 1967
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =20

Correlate
Author's labelpatients vs normals
Page in Source 12
Our classificationInvolved in schooling or not, code S01ac01a
Operationalization
1: Female patients living in private mental hospital
0: Normal controls: Women attending institutions for 
higher education
Observed distributionN= 1: 20; 2: 58

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bDM=- p < .01
Average level of daily moods in: 
          patients   non-patients   difference
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bDM=- p < .01
Highest (9-10) 6.43       7.28          -0.85
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bDM=- p < .01
Average(3-8)   5.49       6.23          -0.72
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bDM=- p < .05
Lowest(1-2)    4.45       5.07          -0.52


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-bSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
Definitely 'blue'
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl