Correlational finding on Happiness and Married vs never married
Subject code: M02aa01

StudyBotha et al. (2018): study ZA 2012
TitleHappiness, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Functioning in South African Households: a Structural Equation Modelling Approach
SourceApplied Research Quality Life, 2018, Vol. 13, 947-989
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11482-017-9568-x
DOIdoi:org/10.1007/s11482-017-9568-x
Public16+ aged general public, South Africa, 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2111

Correlate
Author's labelMarital status
Page in Source 952
Our classificationMarried vs never married, code M02aa01
Operationalization
a: never married (reference)
b: separated/divorced
c: widowed
d: married

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abBeta=+.03
SEPARATED/DIVORCED   (vs never married)

Beta controlled for:
- individual SES index
- family situation
  - attachment
  - changeability
  - household size
  - household structure
  - female-headed household
- personal characteristics
  - log(age), log(age squared)
  - gender 
  - race (coloured, Asian/Indian, white)
  - marital status 
  - health
  - religion
- location
  - geographical area

Beta unaffected by alternativ control of SES:
- individual SES quartiles
- household SES index
- household SES quartiles
- subjective SES index
- subjective SES quartiles
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abBeta=-.02
WIDOWED              (vs never married)

Beta controlled for:
- individual SES index
- family situation
- personal characteristics
- location

Beta unaffected by alternativ control of SES:
- individual SES quartiles
- household SES index
- household SES quartiles
- subjective SES index
- subjective SES quartiles
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abBeta=+.10
MARRIED              (vs never married)

Beta controlled for:
- individual SES index
- family situation
- personal characteristics
- location
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abBeta=+.01
Beta additionally controlled for:
- individual SES quartiles
- family situation
- personal characteristics
- location
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abBeta=+.08
Beta additionally controlled for:
- household SES index / household SES quartiles
- family situation
- personal characteristics
- location
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abBeta=+.06
Beta additionally controlled for:
- subjective SES index / subjective SES quartiles
- family situation
- personal characteristics
- location


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general, how happy of unhappy would you say you are, on the whole?
7 completely happy
6 very happy
5 fairly happy
4 neither happy nor unhappy
3 fairly unhappy
2 very unhappy
1 completely unhappy
- can't choose
- no answer


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl