Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyBotha et al. (2018): study ZA 2012
TitleHappiness, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Functioning in South African Households: a Structural Equation Modelling Approach
SourceApplied Research Quality Life, 2018, Vol. 13, 947-989
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11482-017-9568-x
DOIdoi:org/10.1007/s11482-017-9568-x
Public16+ aged general public, South Africa, 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2111

Correlate
Author's labelHousehold SES quartiles
Page in Source 955-6
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Household SES index: 
a: Household income
b: Assets
c: Electrecity access
d: Toilet facility 
e: Dwelling type 
f: Source of drinking water

1: Quartile 1 (reference)
2: Quartile 2 
3: Quartile 3
4: Quartile 4
Observed distributionRange: -2.04 to +2.52, mean: +0.113, SD: 0.982

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abDM=+ p < .001
1: M = 4,22
2: M = 4,79
3: M = 5,12
4: M = 5,84
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abChiČ=373 p < .001
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abBeta=+
2: Beta = +0.14 (vs lowest)
3: Beta = +0.18 (vs lowest)
4: Beta = +0.28 (vs lowest)

Betas controlled for:
- other aspects of SES (individual, subjective)
- family situation
     - attachment
     - changeability
     - household size
     - household structure
     - female-headed household
- personal characteristics
     - log(age), log(age squared)
     - gender 
     - race (coloured, Asian/Indian, white)
     - marital status 
     - health status 
     - religion status
- location
     - geographical area


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general, how happy of unhappy would you say you are, on the whole?
7 completely happy
6 very happy
5 fairly happy
4 neither happy nor unhappy
3 fairly unhappy
2 very unhappy
1 completely unhappy
- can't choose
- no answer


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
ChiČCHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
ChiČ <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
ChiČ >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl