Correlational finding on Happiness and Current socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab

StudyBotha et al. (2018): study ZA 2012
TitleHappiness, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Functioning in South African Households: a Structural Equation Modelling Approach
SourceApplied Research Quality Life, 2018, Vol. 13, 947-989
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11482-017-9568-x
DOIdoi:org/10.1007/s11482-017-9568-x
Public16+ aged general public, South Africa, 2012
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2111

Correlate
Author's labelSES
Page in Source 955
Our classificationCurrent socio-economic status , code S09ab
Operationalization
a: Individual SES index: respondents ..
    -   income
    -  education
    -  employment status
b: Household SES index 
    - total household income before tax and other 
deductions
    - household characteristics such as asset ownership
    - infrastructures such as electricity access, 
toilet facilities, dwelling type, source of drinking 
water
c: Subjective SES index : respondent's
    - perception of the household's SES relative to 
other households, i.e. perceived family wealth, 
perceived relative income
    - actual income vs. required income

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abrs=+.19 p < .001
a: INDIVIDUAL SES
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abBeta=+.12
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abrs=+.39 p < .001
b: HOUSEHOLD SES
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abBeta=+.26
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abrs=+.48 p < .001
c: SUBJECTIVE SES
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abBeta=+.36
Betas controlled for:
- family situation
  - attachment
  - changeability
  - household size
  - household structure
  - female-headed household
- personal characteristics
  - log(age), log(age squared)
  - gender 
  - race (coloured, Asian/Indian, white)
  - marital status 
  - health
  - religion
- location
  - geographical area


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-g-sq-v-7-abSelfreport on single question:

If you were to consider your life in general, how happy of unhappy would you say you are, on the whole?
7 completely happy
6 very happy
5 fairly happy
4 neither happy nor unhappy
3 fairly unhappy
2 very unhappy
1 completely unhappy
- can't choose
- no answer


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 no rank correlation
rs = 1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl