Correlational finding on Happiness and Enlightenment + excercises
Subject code: H16ad03ma

StudyFordyce (1977): study US 1972
TitleDevelopment of a Program to Increase Personal Happiness.
SourceJournal of Counseling Psychology, 1977, Vol. 24, 511 -521
DOIDOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.24.6.511
PublicStudent participants in a happiness training, USA 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =202

Correlate
Author's labelProgram to increase personal happiness
Page in Source 515-518
Our classificationEnlightenment + excercises, code H16ad03ma
Operationalization
Students were required to apply the program on a daily 
basis for a period of 2 weeks, keeping record each 
evening before retiring on a) what items they had 
tried, b) how succesful they felt they had been, c) any 
noticable effect the program was generating.  

A different program was given to 3 adjustement 
psychology classes as part of their normal clss 
activities

1: TREATMENTS
1a Insight program: Subjects read selected chapters 
from the book 'Human happiness' and on that basis a0 
took notes of what they themselves might adopt in their 
daily living, and b) practice any three things on that 
list
1b Fundamentals program:  Students received a list of 9 
behaviours that are typical for happy people and worked 
on at least 3 of these each day:
1c Activities program: Assignments were given to help 
students think about their personal happiness and the 
kinds of situations and activities that made them happy 
to develop a list of  \t least 10 items on a) what 
usually made them happy, b) they would do almost everry 
day and c) they normally did not take the time to do. 
Students then practiced at least 3 of these activities 
each day

0: CONTROL Suggestion group; Students followed 
(placebo) course activities and were told repeatedly 
that these would help to become happier
Observed distributionPost-test only N = 142 1a: 48; 1b: 44, 1c: 50; 0: 60 Happiness assessed Pre+post-test N = 95 1a: 26,; 1b: 16, 1c: 26; 0: 27
Remarks
Pre-test post-test 2 weeks

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-Sum-g-mq-*-111-aD%sr=+
                                + 8,7%
A-Sum-g-mq-*-111-aDMa=+
Post-test mean LEVEL of happiness
1a insights program       65,6 |
1b fundamentals program   71,9 | 69,8
1c activities program     72,1 |
0 Control                        60,2
- difference                    + 9,6
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aDMa=+
1a insights program       7,30 |
1b fundamentals program   7,66 | 7,58
1c activities program     7,78 |
0 Control                        6,49
- difference                    +1.09
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aD%sr=+
                                +10,9%
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aDMa=+
1a insights program       41,0 |
1b fundamentals program   53,0 | 48,7
1c activities program     51,3 |
0 Control                        30,2
- difference                    +18.5

Net time happy computed by WDH team
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aD%sr=+
                               +18.5%
A-Sum-g-mq-*-111-aDMa=+
POST-test level of Happiness adjusted for PRE-Test 
level
1a insights program       63,4 |
1b fundamentals program   72,4 | 69,5
1c activities program     72,9 |
0 Control                        59,3
- difference                    +10.2
A-Sum-g-mq-*-111-aD%sr=+9%
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aDMa=
1a insights program       7.18 |
1b fundamentals program   7.73 | 7,59
1c activities program     7.85 |
0 Control                        6,27
- difference                    +1,32
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aD%sr=+13%
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aDMa=+
1a insights program       40,6 |
1b fundamentals program   40,4 | 48,0
1c activities program     42,9 |
0 Control                        29,1
- difference                    +18,9

Adjustments to pre-test happiness are meant to 
erase initial differences between treatment and 
control groups and made using covariance.
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aD%sr=+.19
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aDMa=+
Post-test happiness adjusted for pre-test 
happiness 'in last month'
- All treated   Ma =  7,74
- Controls      Ma =  6,20
Difference           +1,54
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aD%sr=+155
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aDMa=+
Post-test happiness adjusted for pre-test 
happiness 'in last month'
- All treated   Ma =  52,0
- Controls      Ma =  31,3
Difference           +20,7
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aD%sr=+21%
Adjustments to pre-test happiness are meant to 
erase initial differences between treatment and 
control groups and made using covariance.
No diffrence between adjustment for happiness ' in 
the Lst month' and ' in general'


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-aSelfreport on single question:

." In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel....?"
Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9 very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3 mildly unhappy (just a little low)
2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Fordyce Happiness Scale
A-Sum-g-mq-*-111-aSelfreport on two questions:

A
Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DO YOU USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9 very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4 mildly unhappy (just a bit low0
3 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down0
2 very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

B)
Consider your emotions a moment further. On the average, what percentage of the time do you feel Happy? What percent of the time do you feel unhappy? What percent of the time do you feel neutral (neither happy nor unhappy)? Write down your best estimate, as well as you can, in the space below. Make sure the figures add-up to equal 100%
The percent of time I felt happy _____%
The percent of time I felt unhappy _____%
The percent of time I felt neutral _____%

Summation: A + % happy on B

Name: Fordyce's 'Happiness measure'
A-TH-g-mq-th%-100-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

"What percentage of the time would you say you are....?" (Percentages must add up to 100%)
1 happy
2 unhappy
3 neutral

Computation: Net Time Happy (NTH) % time happy - % time unhappy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
D%srDIFFERENCE in % of SCALE RANGE
DMaDIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTED MEANS, See also Ma
Type: test statistic
Computed in Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) or in multiple classification analysis (MCA)
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl