Correlational finding on Happiness and Local costs of living
Subject code: L12ab03b

StudyFernandez & Kulik (1981): study US 1973
TitleA Multilevel Model of Life Satisfaction: Effects of Individual Characteristics and Neighborhood Composition.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1981, Vol. 46, 840 - 850
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973-1974
Sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =5916

Correlate
Author's labelCost of living in neighborhood
Page in Source 845-847
Our classificationLocal costs of living, code L12ab03b
Operationalization
Logarithm of real costs of living as observed in 
cities/counties of compa-
rable socio-demographic composition.  

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-cr=-.09
Disattenuated r = -.14
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-cBeta=-.08 p < .05
 controlled for family size, sex, age, education, 
race, health, marital status, family income and 
further neighborhood characteristics (income 
inequality, racial composition, age composition). 
Disattenuated  = -.13


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied would you say you are with your life as a whole ....?'
4 completely satisfied
3 very satisfied
2 moderately satisfied
1 slightly satisfied
0 not satisfied at all


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl