Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployed involuntary
Subject code: E02ab03

StudyHoogendoorn (2017): study NL 2013
TitleSomewhat happily unemployed? A Comparison of the Feelings and Time-Use Reported by the Employed and Unemployed Respondents Participating in a Dutch DRM Survey
SourceMSc thesis, 2017, School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University, Netherlands
Public15-64 aged, users selfhelp website, Netherlands, 2013
SampleNon-probability self-selected
Non-Response
Respondents N =1869

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployment; saddening effect
Page in Source 14,18,19
Our classificationUnemployed involuntary, code E02ab03
Operationalization
1 Unemployed
0 Employed
Observed distribution1: 1830; 0:1686
Remarks
Unemployment as reported on first use of the website. 
Student and pensioners are not considered as 
unemployed.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-APA-yd-mqr-fn-11-aDM=-
Unemployed     M = 6,72
Employed       M = 6,92
- diffference     -0,20
A-APA-yd-mqr-fn-11-ar=-.15 ns
A-APA-yd-mqr-fn-11-aBeta=-.18 ns
Beta controlled for:
- gender
- age + age squared
- education
A-APA-yd-mqr-fn-11-aDM=- p < .47
If employed had enjoyed their activities as much 
as the unemployed did on average:
Unemployed     M = 6,64
Employed       M = 6,79
- diffference     -0,15 (= 'saddening effect')

This difference is unaffected by a 'time 
composition effect' (unemployed spending more of 
their time on enjoyable activities)
A-APA-yd-mqr-fn-11-aBeta=-.09 ns
Beta additionally controlled for:
- living situation
A-APA-yd-mqr-fn-11-aBeta=-.05 ns
Beta additionally controlled:
-  for family income


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-APA-yd-mqr-fn-11-aSelfreport on a) activities of the previous day and b) how one had felt during these activities (DRM)

How did you feel during that activity?
10 happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 unhappy
All numbers presented with faces

Computation: Average happiness over all activitie/time


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl