Correlational finding on Happiness and Later illness
Subject code: H14aa03a

StudyFeller et al. (2013): study DE 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition {EPIC)-Germany.
SourcePLoS ONE 8(8): e73462
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0073462
DOIdoi:10.1371/joumal.pone.0073462
Public35-65 aged, general population, Germany, followed 4 years1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48976

Correlate
Author's labelLater diabetes type 2
Page in Source 5
Our classificationLater illness, code H14aa03a
Operationalization
Diabetes 2, diagnosed at follow-up

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- ns
T1 happiness by T2 diabetes (8 years later)

MEN
                          HR    p    95%CI
Very satisfied(ref.)      1         
Rather satisfied          1.07 .07  0.93-1.22
Unsatisfied               1.12 .07  0.90-1.40

HR controlled for:
- age
- study center
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- ns
                          HR    p    95%CI
Very satisfied(ref.)      1         
Rather satisfied          1.04  ns  0.91-1.19
Unsatisfied               1.05  ns  0.84-1.31

HR additionally controlled for:
- smoking
- alcohol use
- physical activity
- education
- waist/hip ratio
- fruit and vegetable consumption
- red meat consumption
- wholegrain bread consumption
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- ns
                          HR    p    95%CI
Very satisfied(ref.)      1         
Rather satisfied          1.02  ns  0.89-1.16
Unsatisfied               1.00  ns  0.80-1.24

HR additionally controlled for prevalent 
hypertension
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- p < .05
WOMEN
                          HR    p    95%CI
Very satisfied(ref.)      1         
Rather satisfied          1.21 .001  1.02-1.43
Unsatisfied               1.53 .001  1.18-1.97
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- ns
                          HR    p    95%CI
Very satisfied(ref.)      1         
Rather satisfied          1.17 .04  0.99-1.39
Unsatisfied               1.27 .04  0.98-1.65

HR additionally controlled for:
- smoking
- alcohol use
- physical activity
- education
- waist/hip ratio
- fruit and vegetable consumption
- red meat consumption
- wholegrain bread consumption
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- ns
                          HR    p    95%CI
Very satisfied(ref.)      1         
Rather satisfied          1.17 .04  0.98-1.39
Unsatisfied               1.27 .04  0.98-1.64

HR additionally controlled for
- prevalent hypertension


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how satisfied you are with your life overall. Would you say that you are..
4 very satisfied
3 mostly satisfied
2 mostly dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
HRCOX' hazard ratio
Ratio of Hazard rates in which a level of a nominal variable is compared to a reference level.

Cox Hazard rate function is defined as:
?(t|x)=?0(t)exp(x?)
where x is a vector of independent variables and ?) a vector of regression coefficients. ?0(t) is a baseline hazard rate

Type: test statistic
Measurement level: metric
A nonnegative statistic

Meaning: The proportional risk of an event by adding a parameter compared to a reference level parameter

References:
1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proportional_hazards_model
2. Cox, D. R.; Oakes, D. (1984). Analysis of Survival Data. New York: Chapman & Hall. ISBN 041224490X
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl