Correlational finding on Happiness and Ischaemic heart diseases (i20-25)
Subject code: H14ad09b

StudyFeller et al. (2013): study DE 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition {EPIC)-Germany.
SourcePLoS ONE 8(8): e73462
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0073462
DOIdoi:10.1371/joumal.pone.0073462
Public35-65 aged, general population, Germany, followed 4 years1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48976

Correlate
Author's labelLater myocardial infarction
Page in Source 6
Our classificationIschaemic heart diseases (i20-25), code H14ad09b
Operationalization
Myocardial infarction, diagnosed at follow-up

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- ns
T1 happiness by T2 myocardial infarction

MEN
                        HR   p  95%CI      n
Very satisfied(ref.)    1                  142
Rather satisfied        1.02 ns 0.82-1.26  241
Unsatisfied             1.36 ns 0.98-1.90   50

HR controlled for:
- age
- study center 

'Rather satisfied' men had a 2% increased risk for 
a myocardial infarct compared to 'very satisfied' 
men, 'unsatisfied' men had a 36% higher risk for a 
myocardial infarction compared to the 'very 
satisfied'.

Additional control for smoking, alcohol intake, 
physical activity, education,waist/hip ratio, 
fruits/vegetables consumption, red meat 
consumption, wholegrain consumption,hypertension 
and diabetes 2 did not effect lambda 
significantly.
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- ns
WOMEN
                       HR    p   95%CI     n
Very satisfied(ref.)   1                   32
Rather satisfied       1.49 .052 0.98-2.26 82
Unsatisfied            1.66 .052 0.89-3.09 15

HRs controlled for:
- age
- study center 

'Rather satisfied' women had a 5% increased risk 
for a myocardial infarct compared to 'very 
satisfied' men, 'unsatisfied' men had a 47% higher 
risk for a myocardial infarction compared to the 
'very satisfied'.
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR= ns
                         HR    p  95%CI     n
Very satisfied(ref.)     1                  32
Rather satisfied         1.38  ns 0.91-2.10 82
Unsatisfied              1.41  ns 0.75-2.63 15

HR additionally controlled for:
- smoking
- alcohol use
- physical activity
- education
- waist/hip ratio
- fruit and vegetable consumption
- red meat consumption
- wholegrain bread consumption

'Rather satisfied' women had a 5% increased risk 
for a myocardial infarct compared to 'very 
satisfied' men, 'unsatisfied' men had a 47% higher 
risk for a myocardial infarction compared to the 
'very satisfied'.
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- ns
                         HR    p 95%CI      n  
Very satisfied(ref.)     1                  32
Rather satisfied         1.39  ns 0.92-2.12 82
Unsatisfied              1.26  ns 0.67-2.38 15

HR additionally controlled for:
- hypertension
- diabetes 2


'Rather satisfied' women had a 39% increased risk 
for a myocardial infarct compared to 'very 
satisfied' women, 'unsatisfied' women had a 26% 
higher risk for a myocardial infarction compared 
to the 'very satisfied'.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how satisfied you are with your life overall. Would you say that you are..
4 very satisfied
3 mostly satisfied
2 mostly dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
HRCOX' hazard ratio
Ratio of Hazard rates in which a level of a nominal variable is compared to a reference level.

Cox Hazard rate function is defined as:
?(t|x)=?0(t)exp(x?)
where x is a vector of independent variables and ?) a vector of regression coefficients. ?0(t) is a baseline hazard rate

Type: test statistic
Measurement level: metric
A nonnegative statistic

Meaning: The proportional risk of an event by adding a parameter compared to a reference level parameter

References:
1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proportional_hazards_model
2. Cox, D. R.; Oakes, D. (1984). Analysis of Survival Data. New York: Chapman & Hall. ISBN 041224490X
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl