Correlational finding on Happiness and Stroke (i64)
Subject code: H14ad09c

StudyFeller et al. (2013): study DE 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition {EPIC)-Germany.
SourcePLoS ONE 8(8): e73462
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0073462
DOIdoi:10.1371/joumal.pone.0073462
Public35-65 aged, general population, Germany, followed 4 years1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48976

Correlate
Author's labelLater stroke (cardio-vascular)
Page in Source 5
Our classificationStroke (i64), code H14ad09c
Operationalization
Stroke, diagnosed at follow-up

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- p < .05
T1 happiness by T2 stroke

MEN
                          HR    p    95%CI
Very satisfied(ref.)      1         
Rather satisfied          1.37 .02  1.03-1.84
Unsatisfied               1.60 .02  1.02-2.49

HR controlled for:
- age
- study center 

'Rather satisfied' men had a 37% increased risk 
for a stroke compared to 'very satisfied' men, 
'unsatisfied' men had a 60% higher risk for a 
stroke compared to the 'very satisfied'.
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- p < .05
                          HR    p    95%CI
Very satisfied(ref.)      1         
Rather satisfied          1.33 .03  1.00-1.78
Unsatisfied               1.54 .03  0.98-2.40

HR additionally controlled for:
- smoking
- alcohol use
- physical activity
- education
- waist/hip ratio
- fruit and vegetable consumption
- red meat consumption
- wholegrain bread consumption
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- ns
                          HR    p    95%CI
Very satisfied(ref.)      1         
Rather satisfied          1.30 .07  0.97-1.74
Unsatisfied               1.40 .07  0.89-2.19

HR additionally controlled for prevalent 
hypertension hazard risk
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- p < .05
WOMEN
                          HR    p    95%CI
Very satisfied(ref.)      1         
Rather satisfied          1.25 .01  0.89-1.76
Unsatisfied               1.99 .01  1.24-3.19
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- ns
                          HR    p    95%CI
Very satisfied(ref.)      1         
Rather satisfied          1.04 .02  0.91-1.19
Unsatisfied               1.05 .02  0.84-1.31

HR additionally controlled for:
- smoking
- alcohol use
- physical activity
- education
- waist/hip ratio
- fruit and vegetable consumption
- red meat consumption
- wholegrain bread consumption
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bHR=- p < .05
                          HR    p    95%CI
Very satisfied(ref.)      1         
Rather satisfied          1.20 .04  0.85-1.69
Unsatisfied               1.69 .04  1.05-2.73

HR additionally controlled for prevalent 
hypertension hazard risk


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how satisfied you are with your life overall. Would you say that you are..
4 very satisfied
3 mostly satisfied
2 mostly dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
HRCOX' hazard ratio
Ratio of Hazard rates in which a level of a nominal variable is compared to a reference level.

Cox Hazard rate function is defined as:
?(t|x)=?0(t)exp(x?)
where x is a vector of independent variables and ?) a vector of regression coefficients. ?0(t) is a baseline hazard rate

Type: test statistic
Measurement level: metric
A nonnegative statistic

Meaning: The proportional risk of an event by adding a parameter compared to a reference level parameter

References:
1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proportional_hazards_model
2. Cox, D. R.; Oakes, D. (1984). Analysis of Survival Data. New York: Chapman & Hall. ISBN 041224490X
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl