Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyFeller et al. (2013): study DE 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition {EPIC)-Germany.
SourcePLoS ONE 8(8): e73462
URLhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0073462
DOIdoi:10.1371/joumal.pone.0073462
Public35-65 aged, general population, Germany, followed 4 years1994-2008
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48976

Correlate
Author's labelHighest school level
Page in Source 4
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
School level:
0 none
1 primary school completed
2 technical/professional school completed
3 secundary school
4 university

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bD%=+/-
T1 happiness by T1 education
                  None   
Very satisfied       1       
Rather satisfied     1
Unsatisfied          1
                  Primary school completed   
Very satisfied       24       
Rather satisfied     23
Unsatisfied          22
                  Technical/profess. school   
Very satisfied       36       
Rather satisfied     36
Unsatisfied          36
                   Secundary school   
Very satisfied        7       
Rather satisfied      7
Unsatisfied           7
                   University   
Very satisfied       33       
Rather satisfied     36
Unsatisfied          35
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bG=+.03 p < .001


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-g-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

Please tell me how satisfied you are with your life overall. Would you say that you are..
4 very satisfied
3 mostly satisfied
2 mostly dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
- don't know


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl