Subject code: E02ae03

Study | Andersson (2008): study SE 1991 |

Title | Happiness and Health: Well-Being among the Self-Employed. |

Source | The Journal of Socio-Economics, 2008, Vol. 37, 213 - 236 |

DOI | DOI:10.1016/j.socec.2007.03.003 |

Public | 18+aged, working people, Sweden, followed 9 years, 1991-2000 |

Sample | Selection from probability samples |

Non-Response | |

Respondents N = | 1998 |

Correlate | |

Author's label | Self-employment |

Page in Source | 221,227,233 |

Our classification | Self employed, code E02ae03 |

Operationalization | 1: self-employed 0: wage-earners |

Remarks | Assessed at T1 (1991) and T2 (2000) |

Observed Relation with Happiness | ||

Happiness Measure | Statistics | Elaboration/Remarks |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | D%=+ ns | CURRENT employemnt by CURRENT happiness 1991 % happy -Self-employed 64.1% -Wage-earners 61.4% difference +2.7% |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | D%=+ p < .01 | 2000 % happy -Self-employed 70.5% -Wage-earners 59.1% difference +11.4% |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | LRCD=+.34 p < .01 | LRCD controled for time dummy (2000 vs 1991). |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | LRCD=+.38 p < .01 | LRCD additionally controled for: -age -gender -place of birth -education -marital status -place of residence -having children at home |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | b=+.09 p < .01 | b controled for: -age -gender -place of birth -education -marital status -children -place of residence |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | D%=+ ns | T1-T2 CHANGE employment by T1-T2 CHANGE happiness Self-employed both in T1 and T2 -T1(1991): 63.7% -T2(2000): 69.0% difference +5.3% |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | D%=+ ns | Wage-earner in T1 and self-employed in T2 -T1(1991): 67.0% -T2(2000): 72.3% difference +5.3% |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | D%=+ ns | Wage-earner both in T1 and T2 -T1(1991): 61.1% -T2(2000): 59.2% difference -1.9% |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | D%=+ ns | Self-employed in T1 and wage-earner in T2 -T1(1991): 66.7% -T2(2000): 55.6% difference -11.1% |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | b-fix=+.34 ns | b-fix not controled |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | b-fix=+.35 ns | b-fix controled (see below) These fixed effects are not negative, which means that the higher happiness of the self-employed does not result from self-selection of the happy into self-employment |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | b=+.09 p < .01 | b and b-fix controled for: -age -gender -education -marital status -having children at homechildren -place or residence Negative year dummy (b = -.04) indictes that wage-employed became less happy from 1991 to 200 |

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

Code | Full Text |

M-FH-g-sq-v-3-e | Selfreport on single question: Do you generally feel that your life is a source of personal satisfaction? 1 no, never 2 yes, sometimes 3 yes, most of the time |

Appendix 2: Statistics used

Symbol | Explanation |

b | REGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS) Type: test statistic Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric Theoretical range: unlimited Meaning: b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average. B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average. B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate. |

b-fix | REGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis Type: test statistic WDH symbol: b-fix Primary correlate level: metric Secondary correlate level: nonmetric Happiness level: metric Theoretical range: unlimited Meaning: Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient. References: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf |

D% | DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES Type: descriptive statistic only. Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous Range: [-100; +100] Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels. |

LRCD | LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT DICHOTOMOUS Statistic: logit regression coefficient Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: dichotomous Theoretical range: unlimited LRCD > 0 A higher level corresponds to the probability of a higher happiness rating. LRCD< 0 A higher level corresponds to the probability of a lower happiness rating. LRCD = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate. Remarks: Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Magnitudes of coefficients are roughly comparable to OLS if divided by 4 (Wooldridge, Introductory Econometrics, 561-562, 2002) |

Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl