Correlational finding on Happiness and Ageing
Subject code: A04aa01

StudyAndersson (2008): study SE 1991
TitleHappiness and Health: Well-Being among the Self-Employed.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2008, Vol. 37, 213 - 236
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2007.03.003
Public18+aged, working people, Sweden, followed 9 years, 1991-2000
SampleSelection from probability samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =1998

Correlate
Author's labelAge
Page in Source 221,227,233
Our classificationAgeing, code A04aa01
Operationalization
1:1991
2:2000
Remarks
Change happiness access waves.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eD%=+ p < .01
SELF-EMPLOYED (N=356)
-1991:      64.4%
-2000:      70.5%
difference  +6.1%
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-er=+.07 ns
N=356
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eD%=- ns
WAGE-EARNERS   (N=640)
-1991:      61.4%
-2000:      59.1%
difference  -2.3%
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-er=-.02 ns
N=640
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eLRCD=-.07 ns
ALL (N=1998)
LRCD not controled.
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eLRCD=-.07 p < .01
LRCD controled for:
-age
-gender
-place of birth
-education
-marital status
-place of residence 
-having children at home
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eb=-.04 p < .05
b controled for:
-age
-gender
-place of birth
-education
-marital status
-place of residence 
-having children at home


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-FH-g-sq-v-3-eSelfreport on single question:

Do you generally feel that your life is a source of personal satisfaction?
1 no, never
2 yes, sometimes
3 yes, most of the time


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
LRCDLOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT DICHOTOMOUS
Statistic: logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: dichotomous
Theoretical range: unlimited

LRCD > 0 A higher level corresponds to the probability of a higher happiness rating.
LRCD< 0 A higher level corresponds to the probability of a lower happiness rating.
LRCD = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Magnitudes of coefficients are roughly comparable to OLS if divided by 4 (Wooldridge, Introductory Econometrics, 561-562, 2002)
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl