Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination
Subject code: E04ab01a

StudyDavis (1984): study US 1972
TitleNew Money, an Old Man/Lady and Two's Company: Subjective Welfare in the NORC General Social Surveys 1972-1982.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1984, Vol. 15, 319 - 350.
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00351443
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1982
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13581

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived racial discrimination (of Blacks in USA)
Our classificationPerceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination, code E04ab01a
Operationalization
Single direct questions:

A. Do you feel a black person who has
   the same education and   
   qualifications can get as good a job
   as a white person?
B. If a black person has the same 
   qualifications as a white person, do
   you feel he/she makes as much money?


C. Do you think opportunities for   
   Blacks have improved in the last
   five years?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=
% very happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=
- almost always or sometimes   20
- never                        20

O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=+
% very happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=+
- almost always or sometimes   18
- never                        25
(Blacks who percieve income discrimination are
happier!)
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dG=-
% very happy
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dtau=-
- better                       22
- same                         32
- worse                        19


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-g-sq-v-3-dSelfreport on single question:

Generally speaking, how happy would you say you are.....?
3 very happy
2 fairly happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl