Correlational finding on Happiness and Participation in church
Subject code: R12ad02

StudyGreenfield & Marks (2007): study US 1995
TitleReligious Social Identity as an Explanatory Factor for Assosiations Between More Frequent Formal Religious Participation and Psychological Well-Being
SourceThe International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2007, vol. 17, 3, 245-259
Public25-74 aged, general public, USA, 1995
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =3032

Correlate
Author's labelReligious participation
Page in Source 253
Our classificationParticipation in church, code R12ad02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question on frequency you 'usually 
attend religious or spiritual services'
5: more than once a weel
k
4: about once a week
3: one or three times a month
2: less than once a month
1: never
Observed distributionM = 1,67; SD = 1,18
Error Estimatess.e.=0.02
Remarks
Recoded: 3 (5+4), 2 (3), 1: ( 2), 0 (1)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.11 p < .001
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.11
b and Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- education
- income
- employment status
- marital status
- parental status
- self rated physical health


B (+.05) and Beta  (+.04) lower when additionsl 
control for religious social identity


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question

Using a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means 'the worst possible life' and 10 means the 'best possible life', how would you rate your life overall these days?
0 worst possible life
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 best possible life


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl