Correlational finding on Happiness and Years schooling
Subject code: E01ab01

StudyGreenfield & Marks (2007): study US 1995
TitleReligious Social Identity as an Explanatory Factor for Assosiations Between More Frequent Formal Religious Participation and Psychological Well-Being
SourceThe International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2007, vol. 17, 3, 245-259
Public25-74 aged, general public, USA, 1995
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =3032

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 253
Our classificationYears schooling, code E01ab01
Operationalization
1: 12 years or less (reference)
2: < 12 years
3: 13-15 years
4: 16 years of more
Observed distribution1: 10%, 2: 29%, 3: 31%, 4: 30%
Error Estimates<12 years: s.e.=0.08 13-15 years:s.e.=0.06 >16 years: s.e.=0.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.08 ns
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.02 ns
< 12 years        (vs 12 years or less)
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bb=-.18 p < .01
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=-.07
13-15 years       (vs 12 years of less)
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bb=-.18
16 years of more  (vs 12 years of less)
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=-.07
> 16 years        (vs 12 years or less)

All b's and beta's controlled for:
- age
- gender
- race
- income
- employment status
- marital status
- parental status
- self rated physical health
- religious participation

Beta unaffected by additionsl control for
- religious social identity


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question

Using a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means 'the worst possible life' and 10 means the 'best possible life', how would you rate your life overall these days?
0 worst possible life
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 best possible life


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl