Correlational finding on Happiness and Expert rating of health
Subject code: H14ab01

StudyHershfield et al. (2013): study US San Francisco, California 1994
TitleWhen Feeling Bad Can Be Good: Mixed Emotions Benefit Physical Health Across Adulthood.
SourceSocial Psychology and Personal Science, 2013, Vol. 4, 54 - 61
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768126/
DOIDOI: 10.1177/1948550612444616
Public18+ aged, general public, San Francisco, California, United States, followed 10 years, 1994-2005
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =312

Correlate
Author's labelNegative health symptoms
Page in Source 56-58
Our classificationExpert rating of health, code H14ab01
Operationalization
Cornell Medical Health Questionnaire (CMI) Respondents 
reported whether they suffered from 40 symptoms of age 
related illnesses on the following fields:
a: sensory (e.g. "Are you hard of hearing?")
b: cardiovascular (e.g. "Do you have pains in the heart 
or chest?")
c: muskeloskeletal (e.g. "Are your joints often 
swollen?")
c: genitorinary (e.g. "Do you sometimes lose control of 
your bladder?").
Observed distributionLevel: M = 6,63, SD = 4,64 Change: M =0,54, SD = 0,57
Remarks
Respondents completed the CMI 3 times.
Regression with full sample: n=312.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-mi-mq-n-7-aBeta=-
Same time correlation with affect  level
- Positive emotions: Beta=-.07
- Negative emotions: Beta=+.11
A-AB-mi-mq-n-7-aBeta=-
CHANGE health complaints by CHANGE affect 
level(Average of change T1-T2, T1-T3 and T2-T3)
- Positive emotions: Beta=-.15
- Negative emotions: Beta=+.06

Increase in  health complaints goes with lowering 
of affect level. 


Affect Balance not reported.Direction of 
correlation with health complaints estimated by 
WDH team on the basis of correlation with positive 
and negative affect separately

Beta's controlled for age at entry

Unaffected by additional control for:
- mixed emotion (correlation between positive and 
negative affect)


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AB-mi-mq-n-7-aSelfreport on 19 questions repeated 5 times a day

Degree to which one feel emotion at the moment (Full text of lead phrase not reported)
A happiness
B joy
C contentmrent
D exitement
E pride
F accomplishment
G interest
H amusement
I anger
J sadness
K fear
L disgust
M guilt
N embarasment
O shame
P anxiety
Q irritation
R frustration
S boredom

Rated
1 not at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 extremely

Computation: (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H)/8 -(I+J+K+L+M+N+O+P+Q+R+S)/11


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl