Correlational finding on Happiness and Inner locus of control
Subject code: P05bp

StudyGross et al. (1997): study US 1992
TitleEmotion and Aging: Experience, Expression, and Control.
SourcePsychology and Ageing, 1997, Vol. 12, 590 - 599
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9416628
PublicNuns, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response31%
Respondents N =1080

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived control of affective experience
Page in Source 595
Our classificationInner locus of control, code P05bp
Operationalization
Participants first reported how frequently they 
experience each of 5 emotions (1;  never to 4; often)
-  happiness
-  sadness
-  fear
-  anger
-  disgust

Participants next indicated for each of these emotions 
their ability to control
a:  the inner experience
b:  the external signs
Rated
1  not at all
2  a little
3  pretty well
4  very well
Remarks
Carstensen Emotion Questionnaire (CEO)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-cr=+.18 p < .001
a: internal mood control
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-cr=+.01 ns
b: external mood control

Difference in correlation betwenn a and b 
significant.

Happiness (M-TH) is an item in Emotion 
Questionnaire


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question

Do you feel the following emotions…. Happy
4 often feel happy
3 sometimes feel happy
2 seldom feel happy
1 never feel happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl